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This Sceptred Isle

Edward, the Black Prince
Edward, the Black Prince
The Black Prince and the Death of Edward III
Philippa of Hainault bore Edward III 14 children. Her two most famous sons were Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt. Edward, the Black Prince won many victories against the French, John of Gaunt, who came to power during Richard II's adolescence.

In 1355 Edward, the Black Prince met King John II of France at Poitiers. He again was victorious, captured John and took him to the Tower.

In 1360 The Treaty of Bretigny returned Aquitaine and Ponthieu to England and added Calais. The King's ransom was fixed at 3million gold crowns.

The wars with France and the need for revenues led to Parliament sitting more often. The Commons became distinct from the Lords and in 1343 the Speaker emerged for the first time.

PHILIPPA OF HAINAULT ( c. 1314-1369)

  • Queen of England
  • Daughter of William, Count of Holland and Hainault
  • Betrothed to Edward III in 1326 in return for troops to fight for Isabella and Mortimer's invasion of England
  • Married in 1328
  • In 1347 she interceded for the lives of the six burghers of Calais but otherwise she was not very interested in politics
  • Bore the King 14 children, including Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt,two died in infancy
  • Died of the Black Death in 1369

did you know?
The ransom of King John II of France was three million gold crowns, eight times the annual revenue of England in peace time.


  • In the first place: for timber and carpentry, tilers and daubers, in preparing the house for their lodging, as well as the chambers as the hall, buttery, kitchen, and stables; and for making stools and forms throughout, and for carting out the rubbish, such house being quite ruinous; for payment made good to the man of the house, for the said lodging, six pounds nine shillings.
  • Also for firewood, charcoal, turf and sedge, five pounds thirteen shillings
  • Also, for the hire of horses, and for hay and oats, and for straw for the beds, as well as for litter for the horses; and for horse shoeing, twelve pounds fifteen and sevenpence.
  • Also for expenses incurred by Bamme, Vanner, etc, in riding on horseback to Cambridge, and back; and for carriage of their wine and all their harness, thither and back, seven pounds sixteen shillings and eightpence
  • Also, two pipes of red wine taken thither from London, and for other wine bought at Cambridge, nine pounds two shillings
  • Also, for clothes for them and their servants, arrayed in like suit, twenty two pounds and fifteen shillings
  • Also expended at Cambridge throughout the time of the Parliament on bread, ale, flesh-meat, fish, candles, sauce, the laundry man and in gifts to minstrels of the King and of other lords, together with divers other outlayes made, twenty three pounds, five shillings and ninepence.
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1327Edward II is deposed
Edward III becomes King
1337Start of 100 Years War
1340England win naval victory over French
1341David II returns to Scotland
1346England defeats France at Crecy
Edward defeats a Scottish invasion and captures David II
1348Order of the Garter is founded
The Black Death reaches England
1355The Hundred Years' War is renewed
1356Edward the Black Prince defeats the French at Poitiers
John II of Scotland is captured
1357Edward III releases David II
1361Edward, the Black Prince fights in Spain and contracts a disease
1376Edward, the Black Prince dies
1377Edward III dies
Richard II becomes king

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