American Civil War and the Death of Prince Albert
In 1861 Civil War broke out in America. The abolition of slavery in Britain caused concern among the Southern States of America. When Abraham Lincoln became President of the United States in 1861 the Southern States decided to withdraw from the Union - the United States were no longer.
This year was a terribly sad one for Victoria. She lost her mother at the beginning of the year and her beloved husband, Prince Albert at the end. She retreated from public life and went into deep mourning from which she never totally emerged.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865)
- President of the USA 1860-1865
- Born near Hodgenville, Kentucky
- Son of a pioneer
- Settled in Indiana in 1816
- Mother died in 1818 and his new stepmother was interested in education
- In 1830 moved to Illinois
- Began work as a shop assistant; he bought his own shop but went bankrupt
- Became village postmaster and deputy county surveyor
- Studied law and grammar
- Elected to the legislature in 1834 and served until 1842
- Practiced law in 1836
- Married Mary Todd in 1842
- Joined the Republican Party in 1856
- Campaigned for abolition of slavery was elected President in 1860 and made the freedom of slaves his aim
- First used the phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people"
- Assassinated while at the theatre on Good Friday 1865
Italy became one nation in 1861. Victor Emmanuel II became its first King.
Prince Albert was a workaholic, he found it impossible to delegate and so worked a very long day, starting hours before breakfast.
LETTER FROM VICTORIA TO HER UNCLE, KING LEOPALD OF THE BELGIANS AFTER ALBERT'S DEATH
My Own Dearest, Kindest Father - For as such have I ever loved you!
The poor fatherless baby of eight months is now utterly broken-hearted and crushed widow of forty-two!
My life as a happy one is ended!
The world is gone for me!
If I must live on, his spirit will guide and inspire me!
But oh! to be cut off in the prime of life when I had hoped with such instinctive certainty that God never would part us, and would let us grow old together is too awful, too cruel! ...
I am also anxious to repeat one thing, and that one is my firm resolve, my irrevocable decision, namely that his wishes - his plans - about everything, his views about everything are to be my law!
And no human power will make me swerve from what he decided and wished ...
And I live on with him, for him; in fact I am only outwardly separated from him, and only for a time.
God bless and preserve you, Ever your wretched but devoted Child,
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|1834 ||Melbourne becomes Prime Minister|
Robert Peel becomes Prime Minister
Tamworth Manifesto is announced
Houses of Parliament are burned down
|1835||Melbourne becomes Prime Minister|
|1837||William IV dies|
Victoria becomes Queen
|1838||The People's Charter is issued|
|1839 ||The Opium War breaks out|
|1840||Victoria marries Prince Albert|
|1841||Peel becomes Prime Minister|
|1842||The Opium War ends|
|1845 ||The Irish famine starts|
|1846 ||The corn laws are repealed|
Russell becomes Prime Minister
|1848 ||Public Health Act|
|1851 ||The Great Exhibition|
Louis Napoleon seizes power in France
|1854||The Crimean War breaks out|
Florence Nightingale arrives at Scutari
|1855||Palmerston becomes Prime Minister|
|1856 ||The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War|
|1857||The Indian Mutiny breaks out|
|1858 ||The Crown takes over the government of India|
Derby becomes Prime Minister
|1859 ||Palmerston becomes Prime Minister|
|1861 ||Prince Albert dies|
Russell becomes Prime Minister