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This Sceptred Isle

John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
The End of the Seven Years' War
In 1760 George II died and his grandson, George III became King. The monarch no longer reigned by divine right, there were rules of succession. George III was not bright but was conscientious. He had relied on the Earl of Bute for his political education.

Pitt was the most powerful man in Parliament though not Prime Minister. The Earl of Bute and George III did not want him. Pitt and Newcastle resigned over a disagreement over war with Spain. Parliament had had enough of war and subsequently negotiated peace at the Treaty of Paris. Bute became Prime Minister.

Ironically within three months of Pitt's resignation, the Government was compelled to declare war on Spain.

The terms of the Treaty of Paris, together with new and unpopular taxes brought about mob protests on the streets of England in 1763. Within weeks Bute had resigned. George Grenville became Prime Minister.

JOHN STUART (1713-1792)

  • Third Earl of Bute
  • Courtier, politician and, Prime Minister 1762-1763
  • Elected a Scottish representative peer in 1737
  • Tutor and companion to the Prince George
  • When George became King in 1760 Bute was made Groom of the Stole and Northern Secretary of State
  • His considerable influence on the King led to open opposition from the Government
  • His unpopularity inspired the radical paper the North Briton and its editor John Wilkes whose column in the 45th edition led him to prosecution for seditious libel
  • On Pitt the Elder's and Newcastle's resignations in 1762, became PM
  • Agreed the unpopular Peace of Paris in 1763 and resigned that year although he continued to advise the King

did you know?
The last person to hold the office of Groom of the Stole was Charles I's chief minister, the Duke of Buckingham, who was murdered in 1628.


BRITAIN'S ACQUISITIONS UNDER THE TERMS OF THE PEACE OF PARIS 1763

In America:
Canada
Nova Scotia
Cape Breton and adjoining islands
The right to navigate the Mississippi
In the West Indies:
Grenada
St Vincent
Dominica
Tobago
From Spain:
Florida
In Africa:
Retained Senegal
In India:
Retained the East India Company's conquests
In Europe:
Minorca
Fortifications of Dunkirk were demolished
FRENCH RETENSIONS
In America:
The island of St Pierre
The island of Miquelon
Fishing rights off Newfoundland
In the West Indies:
The port of Havana
In China:
Manila
Select historical period
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Chronology
1756 Pitt the Elder becomes Secretary at War
Seven Years' War starts
Black Hole of Calcutta
1757 Militia Act
Calcutta recaptured
1760 George II dies
George III becomes king
Wolfe dies at Quebec
1761 Pitt the Elder falls from power
1762 Newcastle resigns
Bute becomes Prime Minister
1763 Bute resigns
Grenville becomes Prime Minister
1765 Rockingham becomes Prime Minister
Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny
1766 Grafton becomes nominal Prime Minister
1768 Royal Academy of Arts founded
1769Captain Cook lands at Tahiti
1770 Lord North becomes Prime Minister


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