Kennedy, Hugh, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (2nd ed.), (Longman, 2004)
Rogerson, Barnaby, The Heirs of the Prophet Muhammad: And the Roots of the Sunni-Shia Schism (Abacus, 2006)
Bennison, Amira, The Great Caliphs: The Golden Age of the 'Abbasid Empire (I B Tauris, 2009)
Yann, Richard, Shi'ite Islam (Blackwell, 1995)
Crone, Patricia, Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh University Press, 2004)
Momen, M., Introduction to Shii Islam (Yale University Press, 1984)
Madelung, W., The Succession to Muhammad (Cambridge University Press, 1996)
Afsaruddin, A., Excellence and Precedence: Medieval Islamic Discourse on Legitimate Leadership (Brill, 2002)
al-Mufid, Shaykh (translated by I.K.A Howard), Kitab al-Irshad: Book of Guidance (Tahrike Tahsil, 1981)
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