VS Naipaul talks to BBC World Service about threat to Britain from "council house culture"
VS Naipaul today talks
to the BBC World Service about his new book, the threat to Britain from
"council estate culture" and why writing has become harder
Interviewed by Harriett Gilbert for BBC World
Service's The Word, V S Naipaul criticises "vain" middle-class
revolutionaries; British council estates, "a slave growth, they're
parasitic growths on the main body" and council estate culture,
"it's a threat".
The Word is broadcast on the BBC World Service at 10.30am,
3.30pm and 8.30pm today (23 September 2004), UK time.
VS Naipaul talks about his new book, Magic Seeds, in which
Willie Chandran - the main character of Naipaul's previous book Half a
Life - joins a revolutionary underground movement in India.
VS Naipaul: "They (guerrilla groups in India) believe revolution
is the answer. They have no idea what would follow revolution, and in
fact where they liberate these areas they become centres of tyranny.
They blow up the bridges, they cut the telephone wires to the world
outside. So the peasants who should have been liberated are really imprisoned
as in the old feudal days. It is an intellectual folly these guerrilla
movements, they have nothing to offer."
Harriett Gilbert: "What was it that people
told you about these guerrilla movements that made you think, 'I would
like to bring Willie Chandran together with one such movement' as you
have in this novel?"
VS Naipaul: "I met some of the middle class
people who'd gone out to join the revolution and I wasn't impressed
by them at all. I thought they were vain, I thought they were intellectually
not a quarter as bright as they thought they were. That was my lead
into this and then I actually went myself. Not to the guerrilla area
but to a town in an area. And I really thought at that stage after about
three visits, this is so shallow, these people are so dull, there's
no grandeur here, nothing that can support a book. Then as I was thinking
about things, I saw how the very shallowness and the very triviality
could be part of the narrative."
Harriett Gilbert: "One of the nice ironies
in this book is that Willie Chandran, who has been throughout his life,
worried that he isn't authentic, that he's not living his own life
when his sister persuades him that he ought to go out and fight with the
guerrillas - he feels as though he's finally become a whole man that he's
entered history, that he's taken control of his destiny and of course
he hasn't at all has he?"
VS Naipaul: "It's a calamity, it's a great
period of boredom and nothing happening and life being eaten away and
mind being eaten away. And probably people like Willy are always in
that position because they have no idea of history - very few Indians
have an idea of history, the history of India."
Harriett Gilbert: "What you said just now
is implying that Willie's inability to write the story of his life to
simply be a passive actor who kind of drifts from one play to another
is a particularly Indian condition. Do you not think it is in fact the
human condition, I mean most of us when we look back at old diaries
or a photograph of ourselves think who on earth was that person how
did I get to be the person I am now?"
VS Naipaul: "I don't feel I can speak with
authority for many other people. I was limiting it to what I know of
India and making what some people would consider a provocative point
about India. But you see one gets so tired here, in London and elsewhere,
of meeting people from the subcontinent who've completely remade themselves,
who've manufactured stories for themselves to keep their end up. It's
like a national illness actually. And I think that India will not have
full mental health and that means full political health
unless people truly possess their history."
Harriett Gilbert: "In some ways you do parallel
India and England. In the sense that through the lawyer friend of Willie,
Roger you present this vision of an England that is suffering
a kind of informal guerrilla warfare by the lower classes, not the lower
castes, who he refers to as the council estate people. And in his eyes
these people are uniformly semi-criminal, violent, prone to violent
sex, dishonest, deceiving the government and so on. This is a pretty
gloomy, and many would say rather exaggerated picture of the poor in
England, Do you share Roger's view to any extent or are you satirising
him in some way?"
VS Naipaul: "No I'm not satirising him.
It's actually based on observation that idea, council estate culture.
The ancillary aspect of every British city now is the council estate.
Something said in the book that ancilla, means a maid, means a slave
girl, and so these ancillary housing estates are a slave growth, they're
parasitic growths on the main body, the active body. I am willing to
defend that I think. That's what I've seen."
Harriett Gilbert: "Clearly council estates
have a fair share of violence of drug dealing and violence and so on.
But it's absolutely not the case that it's uniformly so that people
who live on council estates are criminal. In fact the majority undoubtedly
aren't and don't beat their women up at night or beat their blokes up."
VS Naipaul: "Well not everybody would, but
let's say one has to notice the council estate life, one has to pay
attention to it, one can't just ignore it. It is taking up more and
more of the country's wealth, it will take up more and more and more
and there is nothing coming back in return."
Harriett Gilbert: "You do indeed present
it in this novel as a threat to Britain."
VS Naipaul: "It's a threat, yes."
Harriett Gilbert: "You've spoken recently
about how, as you get older and you're now over 70, writing becomes
harder for you and that's in some way counter-intuitive because you're
more skilled, you're more practiced, you've had more life to write about.
Could you describe what it is that becomes harder as you get older?"
VS Naipaul: "To be a writer you have to
be out in the world, you have to risk yourself in the world, you have
to be immersed in the world, you have to go out looking for it. This
becomes harder as you get older because there's less energy, the days
are shorter for older people and it's not so easy to go out and immerse
oneself in the world outside. One depends more and more then on observation
and remoteness. I suppose I mean that, just that. Even Tolstoy, when
he was doing Resurrection, I think he was probably about my age, or
might have been even a little younger, he didn't go out and walk the
prisoners' route to Siberia. What he did, he had people, officials who
delighted to come to Yasnya and chat to him about it. And he would have
lawyers come and talk about legal process. So he did his research like
that, staying at home and having the world come to you. But not all
of us can do that."
Harriett Gilbert: "Last time we spoke about your previous
novel, Half a Life. We were talking about whether Willie Chandran was
in some way a kind of horror version of yourself, what you didn't want
to become, and you were talking about your lifelong terror of failure.
Now that you have been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, the highest
award that a writer can get, has this finally put to rest your fear of
VS Naipaul: "The fear of failure went a
little while ago, a little while ago. The thing is it's an act of weakness
to say, 'I'm 72, I've gained recognition, I don't have to do any more'.
It's rather terrible, it's rather terrible, very hard to live with that
terror, that idea. But you know you can't simply write beautifully if
there's nothing to write about. You know you can't just exercise a discipline,
or technique. There is a relationship between the material and the way
you deal with it. Material becomes thin, then I think probably you wouldn't
write about it. Because you, I mean I, I wouldn't finish anything unless
I felt its great importance."