The leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-il, has died. He was 69. Kim Jong-il succeeded to the presidency upon the death in 1994 of his father, Kim Il-sung, who had the title of Eternal President. He presided over one of the world's most isolated and repressive regimes.
Reportagem: Charles Scanlon
Kim Jong-il was an elusive figure - seldom appearing in public. Like his father Kim Il-sung, he was the subject of an effusive personality cult, which portrayed him as a heroic commander with near magical powers.
But overseas, Kim Jong-il was seen as a tyrant - heading a system that used public executions and labour camps to suppress any suggestion of dissent. He was groomed from an early age to take power in the Communist world's first dynastic succession.
His early years as leader were marred by famine and near economic collapse. But Kim Jong-il proved to be a ferocious and uncompromising negotiator, using the threat of war and occasional military strikes to intimidate neighbouring countries.
He defied intense pressure from the United States and its allies by testing nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Demonised in the South Korean media as a reckless playboy with a love of fine wine and European women - he was accused of ordering terrorist attacks and abductions.
But the few foreigners who did meet him described him as courteous, alert and intelligent. Early hopes that Kim Jong-il would turn into a reformer were dashed. He remained suspicious of free markets - although they were tolerated as a necessary evil after the state rationing system broke down.
There were constant rumours about his ill health and stories about dissent in the military - but Kim Jong-il pursued his goal with grim determination - the survival of a uniquely totalitarian system in an increasingly hostile world.
an elusive figure (uma pessoa difícil de se encontrar ou descrever) a person difficult to find or describe
personality cult (adoração organizada por uma figura pública, culto à personalidade) organised love for a public figure
tyrant(um líder cruel com poder total, tirano) a cruel leader with complete power
dissent (dissidência, discordar da política oficial) disagreement with official policy
dynastic succession (sucessão dinástica, sistema em que o poder político é passado a um membro mais jovem de uma mesma família, dinastia) system which handle political power down within one family
demonised (descrito como o diabo) portrayed as evil
abductions (abduções, levar alguém de um lugar para outro contra a vontade da pessoa) the take of people from one place to another
a necessary evil (um mal necessário, algo que você aceita e/ou faz mesmo que não acredite nele) something you do even if you don´t believe in it
grim determination(fazer algo de modo persistente custe o que custar, grande determinação) doing something persistently even it is hard
totalitarian (termo usado para descrever um sistema político no qual todo o poder é concentrado em uma ou poucas pessoas, totalitarismo) used to describe a political system in which all power lies with only one or a few