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16 October 2014
BBC Northern Ireland Learning - Citizenship - KS3/KS4

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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Annadale
An area in South Belfast close to the Ormeau Road and the River Lagan.
Anti-racism
Demonstrating that you are opposed to treating people differently because of their race or colour. Encouraging people from different ethnic backgrounds to treat each other equally.
Apartheid
In a country with an Apartheid system people of different races are forced to live apart and are treated unequally, e.g. in South Africa up until 1994 black and white people were kept separate even on buses and in public toilets.
Apprentice Boys of Derry
A group which was set up to celebrate two anniversaries associated with the Siege of Derry in 1689, an event which saw Protestants survive Catholic attempts to starve them out of the city. This Protestant group holds parades in Londonderry/Derry in August and December.
Asylum-seeker
A person worried about their safety who travels to another country looking for security and protection.
Bagpiper
Someone who plays a musical wind instrument called a bagpipe. Some Protestants listen to Scottish bagpipe music because they feel a common bond with Scotland where their ancestors came from.
BCE / CE
The dates system BCE (Before the Common Era) and CE (Common Era) can be used in place of BC (before the birth of Christ) and AD (anno domini, in the year of our Lord). BCE /CE is more acceptable to a greater number of faiths and religions.
Bigot
A person who has strong, unreasonable beliefs and thinks that anyone who does not have the same beliefs is wrong.
Bigotry
Believing that other people's views are wrong and being intolerant of them.
'Bin liner'
An abusive term used to describe Muslims. A supposedly funny way of saying Bin Laden and therefore linking Muslims to Bin Laden and his 'terrorist' murders on 11th September 2001 in America.
Bogside Residents' Group
A group in Derry / Londonderry which makes sure residents' concerns are heard about the Loyal Order marches that pass through the city every year.
Bystander
Someone who is present but not taking part in what is going on.
Carson
Became Ulster Unionist leader in 1911. Sir Edward Carson did not want Ireland to have its own government but for the union between Britain and Ireland to remain.
Craig
Leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and first prime minister of Northern Ireland, holding that office for almost twenty years (1921-1940).
Celtic
A Scottish soccer team that has a large Catholic following in Northern Ireland.
Civil war
When the people in a country are so divided over an issue that they go to war against each other. It can involve brothers fighting brothers, fathers fighting sons. It can be one religion or race against another.
Coerce
To persuade someone forcefully to do something which they are unwilling to do.
Co-existence
Living in peace with each other's differences.
Combat 18
A racist group named after Adolf Hitler's initials which come first and eighth (18) in the alphabet. Hitler is regarded as their hero because he believed that white people are superior.
Community
A group of people who live in the same area, share common interests and look out for one another.
Compromise
A settlement of differences where both groups involved reduce their demands in order to come to an understanding.
Concerned Residents Group
Catholic residents, living in areas where Orange marches pass through, set up groups to make sure their concerns and objections about these parades were listened to (e.g. Garvaghy Road Residents Coalition).
Consent
To agree to do something or to give someone else permission to do something.
Cross-code
Combined set of rules from different (sporting) organizations.
Cross-community
Contact between two divided communities. For example, events held where Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland can get to know each other better.
Culture
A society's language, values, beliefs and customs that together give people a sense of who they are.
Cultural landscape
A landscape which has been changed by people living there for generations.
For example, people change the natural landscape by building roads and houses, creating fields and gardens.
Custom
A way of behaving or a belief which has been established for a long time - a tradition.
Democracy
A system of government where everyone has the same rights and responsibilities. Power is either held by elected representatives or directly by the people themselves.
Dialogue
A conversation or discussion between two or more people.
Discrimination
Treating people less fairly because they belong to a different group.
Distinct
Clearly separate and different from something else, and therefore easily recognisable.
Diversity
When something has variety and differences within it. For example, the world is made up of many different cultures and peoples. It's the difference between these that gives us diversity.
DUP
The Democratic Unionist Party draws its support from the Protestant community and is fiercely opposed to any moves towards involving the Republic of Ireland in Northern Ireland affairs. It became the largest party in Northern Ireland following the assembly election in 2003.
Eleventh Night
The night before 12th July when bonfires are lit at midnight to start 'The Twelfth' celebrations (important part of the Protestant culture for some).
Emigration
(opposite of immigration) When people voluntarily move out of one country to start a new life in another country.
Equality
Being equal. People are allowed the same rights and have the same responsibilities as everyone else in the community.
Ethnic minority
People of a certain race, religion or nationality who live in a country where the majority of the population belong to a different race/religion/nationality. For example, white people in India would be considered an ethnic minority just like a person of Indian race would be considered an ethnic minority in Northern Ireland because the people here are mostly white.
Exclusion
Preventing someone from joining in an activity or entering a place. Shutting them out and making them feel unwelcome.
Exile
When people are forced to leave their home or their country.
Exodus
The movement of a large number of people away from somewhere. It is normally associated with masses of people fleeing war, famine or flood.
Fife (flute)
This is a musical instrument that bandsmen play as part of the Orange Order celebrations on 12th July.
Filipino
Someone who comes from the Philippines, a country made up of over 7,000 islands, located in the southern hemisphere, south east of China.
Forgiveness
The act of forgiving or pardoning someone.
Fundamentalism
Sticking strictly to old and traditional religious beliefs and customs, with no acceptance of modern developments.
Fundamentalists
People who stick strictly to the old and traditional beliefs of their religion. They believe that their religious texts contain no errors whatsoever and are completely true.
Free Presbyterian
This Protestant church was started by Rev Ian Paisley in 1951 and is fundamentalist and evangelical. Members believe that they must live their lives according to what is written in the bible and that preaching the gospel to others is important.
Freedom
Being able to do, say, think, choose whatever you want. Not being controlled or limited in any way.
Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)
A sporting organisation that makes it possible for young men, women, boys and girls to play various sports including: Gaelic football, hurling, camogie, handball, rounders, etc.
Gender
The fact that you are male or female.
Genocide
The mass killing of a whole community or race of people. For example, in Rwanda (Africa) nearly a million Tutsis were murdered by their Hutu neighbours in 100 days. The word was first used to describe the murder of six million Jews in Hitler's Germany.
Global citizen
A new idea which refers to someone who actively looks out for other people in the world. They think of themselves as a citizen of the world and not a particular country. It has no legal basis in law.
Hardline
Sticking strictly to an opinion or policy. Not likely to compromise or change.
Harmony
When people agree with each other and everybody gets along.
Headscarf
Worn by some Islamic women to protect their modesty. It is not compulsory and women wear it by choice as an expression of their faith.
Heritage
Something which is passed down from previous generations. These can be items such as traditions, languages, or even property.
Hindu
Someone who believes in and practises Hinduism. Hinduism began in India about 5,000 years ago. It is not a single unified religion and has no individual founder.
Hindu nationalists
These are Hindus who want India to be a country for Hindus and are unhappy that it is a secular state (it neither supports nor opposes any particular religious beliefs or practices).
Hindu temple
A place of worship for Hindus.
Holocaust
The killing of very large numbers of people. Often used to describe the mass murder of millions of Jews by the Nazis during World War II.
Hypocritical
Not practising what you preach.
Identity
The individual characteristics by which a person is recognised.
Immigration
(opposite of emigration) Moving into another country to live permanently.
Indigenous
Born or belonging naturally to a region or country, e.g. Aborigines in Australia.
Inclusion
Letting someone join in an activity and feel welcome.
Indoctrination
Teach or persuade (a person or group) to accept certain ideas or beliefs without questioning them in any way.
Inequality
Being unequal. Not being allowed the same rights or opportunities as everyone else in the community.
Integrating
Bringing together people previously separated from each other to participate equally in the same community.
Interface area
A place where two things (i.e. groups of people) come together and affect each other.
Intermarriage
Marriage between people of different races or religions.
International
Involving two or more countries.
Intimidation
Threatening or frightening someone into doing something.
IRA
(Irish Republican Army) This organisation wants Northern Ireland to no longer be under British rule and its final goal is for Ireland to become a democratic socialist republic. It carried out a military campaign during the 1970s, 80s and 90s to try and achieve these aims.
Irreverent critique
Cheeky, disrespectful assessment of something. Analysing in a light- hearted way matters that would usually be taken more seriously.
Islam
One of the world's largest and most widespread religions. Followers (called Muslims) believe that there is only one God (Allah). Islam means 'submission to God'.
Islamic
Something associated with the religion of Islam.
Islamophobia
Hatred or fear of Muslims (followers of Islam), their politics and / or their culture.
Justice
When something is fair or just.
Lambeg drum
An oak and goatskin drum weighing 34-40 lbs and measuring 3 foot in diameter. It is played with two canes and can make a sound as loud as a pneumatic drill. The Lambeg drum is traditionally carried on 12th July in Orange Order processions and is traditionally played with fifes (flutes).
Legislation
A law or laws made by a government.
L.K. Advani
A political leader in India who would like India to become a Hindu state and scrap its secular (not favouring any one religion) laws.
Local councils
People vote to elect representatives to look after things on their behalf in their local area, e.g. emptying bins, cleaning streets, providing sites for Travellers. These elected representatives are known as councillors and when they meet together to make decisions they are known as the local council.
Lord Rama
Hindus believe that Vishnu (one of their main gods), has appeared on earth in various forms. One of these forms was Lord Rama, whose birthday is celebrated during the festival of Ramanavami.
Loyalist
People who strongly support the British way of life.
Loyalist paramilitaries
Protestant people who want Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom and have engaged in violence to achieve this. Loyalist paramilitary organisations include Ulster Defence Association (UDA), Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) and Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF).
Mayor
The elected head of a town, city, borough, or council.
Mediation
Trying to help two people or two groups involved in a disagreement to agree or find a solution to their problems.
Minority
Any small group in a society that is different from the rest. Differences often include race, religion or political views.
Moderate
A person whose opinions, especially their political ones, are not extreme.
Mosque
A place of worship for Muslims. Mosques are also used as community places and places of study and learning.
Moy
A predominately Catholic village in Co. Armagh.
Mixed race
People whose parents belong to different races, e.g. one parent is Chinese and the other parent is Indian.
Multicultural
Including people from different cultural and ethnic groups.
Muslim
A person who follows the religion of Islam.
Mutually exclusive
Two things which cannot take place or exist at the same time. Selecting one option automatically means the other option cannot be selected. For example, if you have a piece of land and you decide to build a leisure centre on it, you can't then build a shopping centre on it - it's one or the other.
Nationalism
The belief that your country should have its own independent government, e.g. Northern Ireland should be united with Republic of Ireland and ruled by the Irish government, with no British involvement.
Nationalist
Someone who believes that their country should have its own independent government, e.g. Northern Ireland should be united with Republic of Ireland and ruled by the Irish government, with no British involvement.
Nationalist area
An area where the majority of residents believe that their country should have its own independent government. In Northern Ireland, generally these areas are populated by members of the Catholic faith.
Nelson Mandela
A black leader who was imprisoned by the white government of South Africa (from 1964-1990) for trying to achieve fairness and equality for black people. In 1994, he became the first black president of South Africa.
Nigeria
A large country situated in Western Africa. Nigeria had suffered nearly 16 years of military rule up to 1999 before a civilian government was introduced. Nigeria has attracted much media attention during recent years due to violence over religious issues.
No go areas
These are places where it is dangerous for outsiders to go, usually because the police do not have complete control of the area. For example, in Northern Ireland it can be unsafe for Catholics to go into certain Protestant areas and vice versa, because they may be verbally abused or attacked.
Nomadic
This is the term used to describe a person or group of people who have no fixed place to live, but instead move from place to place.
Non-sectarian
Practising your religion in a way which includes tolerance and acceptance of other religions.
North and West Belfast Parades Forum
A residents' group that was set up in Belfast to make sure residents' concerns were listened to about the marches that pass through their areas in north and west Belfast.
Orangeman
A member of the Orange Order, a Protestant organisation founded in 1795 with the aim of defending the Protestant faith. You must be Protestant to become a member.
Orange Order
A Protestant organisation founded in Ireland in 1795 and which takes its name from Protestant Prince William of Orange who fought and took the English throne from the Catholic King James. Its members celebrate their culture through various activities, the most well known being marching.
Paki
An abusive term for people from Pakistan.
Papish
An offensive nickname some Protestants use to call Catholics (linked to the Pope – Papish).
Parades Commission
An independent group set up by the British government in 1997 to make decisions on whether controversial parades should be restricted. The Commission listens to people's views and takes into consideration the rights of everyone involved in or affected by a parade.
Paramilitaries
Organised groups who use violence to get what they want.
Partition
When a country is divided into two or more parts (eg Ireland is partitioned into Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland).
Peaceline
This is a wall or fence built to keep two opposing communities apart. Erected at various flashpoints in Belfast.
Peace process
This is the title given to the discussions between the British and Irish governments, which aim to resolve the conflict in Northern Ireland.
Peer group
This describes you and the group of people you hang around (socialise) with - likely to be the same age.
Perpetrator
Someone who has committed a crime or a harmful action.
Persecution
Being continually cruel to a person because of their race, religion, sexual orientation or beliefs.
Philippines
This is a country made up of over 7,000 islands, located in the southern hemisphere south east of China.
Prejudice
When a person dislikes another for no good reason, or has formed a hostile opinion of someone before even getting to know them.
Prisoner of conscience
Someone imprisoned because of their beliefs.
Prods
An offensive nickname for Protestants, often used by Catholics.
Province
A name often used to describe Ulster or Northern Ireland. It is based on the fact that Ireland is made up of four provinces - Ulster, Leinster, Munster and Connaught.
Race
A group of people with certain physical characteristics in common such as skin colour and hair type, and who also share the same history and language.
Racial discrimination
Treating people from a particular race unfairly and even unkindly, solely because of the race group they belong to.
Racism
The belief that one group of people is inferior to another because of the race they belong to.
Rangers
A Scottish soccer team that has a large Protestant following in Northern Ireland.
Reconcile
When two or more people, or groups of people, agree to settle their differences after arguing with each other.
Reconciliation
A process that encourages opposing groups to talk to each other again after an argument and settle their differences.
Refugees
People who have fled their home country to find safety in another.
Respect
Treating other people with consideration.
Republican
In an Irish context, this is someone who wants an independent Ireland which includes the whole of the island and where everyone (whatever their religion) is equal.
Richhill
A predominately Protestant village in County Armagh.
Romany gypsies
An ethnic group whose cultural heritage involves moving from place to place (nomadic). They left north-west India in the first millennium AD and spread to most parts of Europe by 16th century. Gypsies often refer to themselves as Roma or Romani, particularly in eastern and central Europe. They have their own Romany language and are recognised as an ethnic minority. For more information - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4368791.stm
Safe haven
Places of security and refuge. Often a term used to describe countries that refugees flee to - a place where they can feel safe.
Scapegoat
A person who is wrongly blamed for the fault(s) of another.
SDLP
(Social Democratic and Labour Party) A nationalist political party which seeks a united Ireland, but only with people's agreement. It was born in 1970 out of the civil rights movement which campaigned for Catholics to have the same rights as Protestants in Northern Ireland.
Sectarian
Practising your religion in a way that shows intolerance of or an unwillingness to accept the religious beliefs of others.
Sectarian marches
Parades associated with one culture or religion, which are viewed by another religion as intolerant of their beliefs eg Catholics may see Orange Order marches as not treating their religious beliefs with respect.
Sectarianism
Treating people unfairly because they belong to a certain religious group - i.e. Catholic people might treat Protestant people unfairly just because of their religious beliefs (and vice versa).
Secularism
Where religious or spiritual matters are not taken into consideration. Believing that religion should play no part in the running of a country.
Segregation
The process in which two or more people (or groups of people) are kept separate. Usually because of differences in race, beliefs, colour or sex.
September 11th 2001
The day when Al Quaeda terrorists flew planes into the Twin Towers buildings in New York and the Pentagon building in Pennsylvania, USA. Over 3,000 people were killed.
Shinty
A community game unique to Scotland. It is a fast moving sport, similar to hockey and lacrosse, but there is no restriction on the swing of the curved stick. There are 12 players on each team. Organised matches are held each year between hurling and shinty teams.
Shrine
A holy place, where people often worship.
Sinn Fein
A nationalist political party, which is opposed to a British presence in any part of Ireland. It is regarded as the political wing of the IRA and was founded in Dublin in 1905.
SS RUC
An offensive name used by some people to describe the police in Northern Ireland. "SS" comes from the name given to Hitler's terror police and "RUC" (Royal Ulster Constabulary) was the name given to Northern Ireland's police force prior to the current title - Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI).
State
Another word used to describe a country or its government.
Stereotype
Believing that people of a certain group, race or religion all have the same characteristics when they don't. Fixed, inaccurate ideas about a group which leads to its members being treated in a certain way.
Swastika
A symbol used by Hitler's Nazi Party.
Taigs
An offensive nickname for Catholics, often used by Protestants.
Terrorists
People or groups who use violence in an attempt to achieve their political goals.
Tolerance
Accepting other people's beliefs or actions even though you disagree with them.
Tradition
Like heritage, it is a way of life or a set of customs that a community have practised for a long time.
Travellers
A community who have lived in caravans (or equivalent) for hundreds of years all over Europe. They see it as part of their culture to move around the country living in different places.
Twelfth of July
Traditionally this is a day of celebration for Protestants in Northern Ireland, in remembrance of 1690 when Prince William of Orange (Protestant) defeated King James (Catholic). This is a public holiday in Northern Ireland when there are Orange Order marches in many towns and cities.
The Twelfth
A term used to describe the Twelfth of July in Northern Ireland. (see glossary entry for Twelfth of July.)
Ulster Defence Association
A loyalist paramilitary group, who believe in using violence to protect the Protestant people and keep Northern Ireland British. They are also known as the UDA.
Unionist
A name given to people who want Northern Ireland to continue under British rule. (Most unionists are Protestants.)
United Ireland
Many people in Ireland believe that Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland should become one country and be ruled by the Irish government with no British involvement. This would then be a "United Ireland".
UUP
(Ulster Unionist Party) A political party that wants Northern Ireland to remain as part of the United Kingdom.
Victim
Someone who has been hurt, made to suffer or even killed by another.
White Right
A group of people (in South Africa) who believe that white people are superior to black people and do not accept black people being involved in running their country.
Xenophobia
The fear or dislike of foreign people and their ways.


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