Pakistan is one of the world's deadliest countries for journalists. Intelligence agents and members of banned militant organisations are behind "serious threats" to reporters, says Reporters Without Borders.
The government uses legal and constitutional powers to curb press freedom and the law on blasphemy has been used against journalists. The broadcasting regulator can halt the carriage of foreign TV channels via cable, particularly Indian or Afghan ones.
Television is the dominant medium, and there are dozens of private channels. Most viewers watch them via cable; there are no private, terrestrially-broadcast stations. State-run Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) is the sole national terrestrial broadcaster.
More than 100 private FM radio stations are licensed. They are not allowed to broadcast their own news.
Scores of unlicensed FM stations are said to operate in the tribal areas of North-West Frontier Province. Usually operated by clerics, some of the outlets are accused of fanning sectarian tension.
Pakistan's press is among the most outspoken in South Asia, but its influence is limited by a low level of literacy.
There were 29.1 million internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats.com). The rapid growth in mobile phone use is boosting the delivery of online content.
Filtering targets content deemed blasphemous, secessionist, anti-state, or anti-military, OpenNet Initiative reports. The regulator has imposed temporary blocks on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other sites over material it says is "sacrilegious".
Pakistani users active on Twitter include senior politicians and sports and entertainment stars.
- Daily Jang - Karachi-based, Urdu-language; largest-circulation daily
- Dawn - Karachi-based, largest-circulation English-language daily
- The Nation - Lahore-based, English-language daily
- The Frontier Post - Peshawar-based, English-language
- The News - English-language daily, published by Jang group
- Daily Ausaf - Islamabad-based, Urdu-language
- Daily Times - English-language, publishes in Lahore and Karachi
- Pakistan Observer - Islamabad-based daily
- Business Recorder - financial daily
- Pakistan and Gulf Economist - business weekly
- The Friday Times - Lahore-based weekly, English-language
- Pakistan Television Corporation Ltd - state TV, operates PTV Home, regional network PTV National, Baluchi-language PTV Bolan, PTV News
- ATV - semi-private, terrestrial network
- Geo TV - leading private satellite broadcaster, owned by Jang publishing group; based in Dubai; services include Urdu-language Geo News
- Dawn News - private satellite broadcaster, owned by Herald group; first English-language news channel
- Aaj TV - private satellite broadcaster, owned by Business Recorder group
- Indus TV - private, via satellite; services include Indus Vision, Indus News and entertainment channels
- ARY Digital - private, via satellite; services include ARY News and entertainment channels
- Dunya News TV - private, via satellite; Lahore-based
- Radio Pakistan - state-run, operates 25 stations nationwide, an external service and the entertainment-based FM 101 network, aimed at younger listeners
- Azad Kashmir Radio - state-run service for Pakistani-administered Kashmir
- Mast FM 103 - private, music-based
- FM 100 - private, music-based
- Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) - state-funded