What is life like in the Islamic State stronghold of Raqqa, Syria?
4 December 2015 Last updated at 15:17 GMT
One of the key arguments that the British government made in favour of airstrikes against Islamic State in Syria is the need to stem the refugee flow.
Most of those fleeing Syria have settled in Turkey - over 2 million Syrians are now there - escaping attacks by the regime of President Assad, and also by IS - which the refugees call Daesh.
Correspondent Mark Lowen has met a new arrival from Raqqa now living near the Turkey/Syria border.