Profile: Egypt's Mohammed Morsi
Mohammed Morsi was Egypt's first civilian and Islamist president, but stayed in power for only one year before being ousted by the army on 3 July 2013.
The army's move followed four days of mass anti-government protests and Mr Morsi's rejection of an army ultimatum to resolve Egypt's worst political crisis since Hosni Mubarak was deposed in 2011.
After almost two months in detention at a secret location, state prosecutors announced on 1 September that Mr Morsi would stand trial for inciting murder and violence.
The charge relates to the deaths of at least seven people during clashes between opposition protesters and Muslim Brotherhood supporters outside the Ittihadiya presidential palace in Cairo in December 2012.
Mr Morsi went on trial alongside 14 senior Brotherhood figures, on 4 November 2013.
The deposed president is also under investigation over his escape from prison during the uprising that forced Mr Mubarak from power, including that he conspired with the Palestinian militant group Hamas.'Coup'
When he came to power in June 2012 after a narrow election victory Mr Morsi promised to head a government "for all Egyptians", but critics complained he failed to deliver during his turbulent year in office.
They accused him of allowing Islamists to monopolise the political scene, concentrating power in the hands of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamist movement to which he belongs.
Moreover they said he mishandled the economy and failed to deal with the very issues that led to the uprising that brought him to power: calls for rights and social justice.
Public opposition to Mr Morsi began building in November 2012 when, wishing to ensure that the Islamist-dominated constituent assembly could finish drafting the country's new constitution, the president issued a decree granting himself far-reaching powers.
He agreed to limit the scope of the decree after days of opposition protests. But there was further outrage at the end of that month, when the constituent assembly approved a rushed version of the constitution - despite a boycott by liberals, secularists and the Coptic Church.
Amid increasing unrest, President Morsi issued a decree authorising the armed forces to protect national institutions and polling places until a referendum on the draft constitution was held on 15 December 2012. Critics said that decree amounted to a form of martial law.
The army returned to barracks after the charter was approved, but within weeks it was forced to deploy in cities along the Suez Canal to halt clashes between opponents and supporters of Mr Morsi that left more than 50 people dead.
On 29 January 2013 the armed forces chief, General Abdul al-Sisi, warned that the political crisis might "lead to a collapse of the state".
In late April, opposition activists set up the grassroots Tamarod (Revolt) protest movement. It focused on collecting signatures for a petition - which complained about Mr Morsi's failure to restore security and fix the economy, and called for fresh presidential elections.
It also organised mass protests to mark the first anniversary of the day he took office. On 30 June 2013, millions of protesters took to the streets across Egypt.
In a speech on the eve of his election anniversary, Mr Morsi struck a conciliatory tone, conceding he had "made many mistakes" and that they would "need to be corrected".
The protests prompted the military to warn him on 1 July that it would intervene and impose its own "roadmap" if he did not satisfy the public's demands within 48 hours and end the political crisis.
As the deadline approached, Mr Morsi insisted he was Egypt's legitimate leader.
He warned that any effort to remove him by force could plunge the country into chaos. "The people empowered me, the people chose me, through a free and fair election," he said. "Legitimacy is the only way to protect our country and prevent bloodshed, to move to a new phase."
On the evening of 3 July, the army stepped in, suspending the constitution and announcing the formation of a technocratic interim government ahead of new presidential elections.
A statement on Mr Morsi's Facebook page denounced the army announcement as a "coup".Narrow victory
Mohammed Morsi was born in the village of El-Adwah in the Nile Delta province of Sharqiya in 1951.
He studied Engineering at Cairo University in the 1970s before moving to the United States to complete a PhD.
After returning to Egypt he became head of the engineering department at Zagazig University.
He rose through the ranks of the Muslim Brotherhood (joining its Guidance Bureau), serving as an independent in the movement's parliamentary bloc from 2000 to 2005.
Mohammed Morsi in brief
- US-educated engineering professor; taught at Zagazig University
- Previously served in Brotherhood's Guidance Bureau; head of the Freedom & Justice Party until elected president
- Independent MP from 2000-2005
- Married with four children
He then lost his seat in his home constituency, after a run-off vote that he claimed was rigged.
As an MP, he was occasionally praised for his oratorical performances, for example after a rail disaster in 2002 when he denounced official incompetence.
Mr Morsi was chosen as the Muslim Brotherhood's presidential candidate in April 2012 after the movement's deputy general guide, millionaire businessman Khairat al-Shater, was forced to pull out.
Although Mr Morsi was seen as less charismatic, he was chairman of its Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) and considered a safe pair of hands.
Mr Morsi went on to narrowly win a deeply polarising election run-off with 51.7% of the vote.
He beat Ahmed Shafiq, a retired air force commander who served as the last prime minister of the former president, Hosni Mubarak.
In his election campaign, Mr Morsi presented himself as a bulwark against any revival of the Mubarak old guard.
After a difficult period of transitional military rule he insisted he would build a "democratic, civil and modern state" that guaranteed the right to freedom of religion and peaceful protest.
"The presidency will be an institution. The Superman era is over," he said.
Mr Morsi resigned from his position as head of the FJP and Muslim Brotherhood's guidance bureau after his victory was announced, but still belongs to both.
After weeks of consultations, he ultimately selected the independent Islamist, Hisham Qandil, to be prime minister.
In his first year, sectarian tensions in Egypt repeatedly spilled over.
This left the indigenous Coptic Christian minority feeling vulnerable, while in June 2013, four members of the country's tiny Shia community were killed in an attack.'Renaissance Project'
The Brotherhood's political platform placed its Renaissance Project centre-stage.
It was meant to be a comprehensive plan to provide solutions for Egypt's manifold problems: from an overhaul of the economy and security services to dealing with chronic traffic problems and rubbish in the streets.
However under Mr Morsi's rule, the severe economic crisis only got worse.
Investment dried up and the tourism industry - which employed one in 10 Egyptians - was devastated.
Visitors were put off by the continuing unrest - but the president also made unpopular decisions.
There were angry demonstrations in Luxor after he appointed a new governor from Gamaa al-Islamiya (Islamic Group), a group that took responsibility for a massacre of tourists in the city in 1997.Sidelined military
One of Mr Morsi's most successful strategic moves was against the military that governed Egypt after Mubarak was ousted in early 2011.
In August 2012 he asked then head of the armed forces, Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, and his chief of staff to resign but officially kept them on as advisers.
He also annulled constitutional amendments passed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces that had restricted his powers.
The president's foreign policy won him some praise.
He is seen to have balanced overtures to regional rivals, particularly Iran, with harshly worded attacks on Syria's President Bashar al-Assad.
The ongoing civil war prompted Egypt to cut diplomatic ties with Damascus.
Western leaders also commended Mr Morsi for his role in securing a ceasefire in November 2012 between Hamas, which governs Gaza, and Israel with which Egypt signed a peace treaty in 1979.