Egyptian presidential elections: The candidates

Egypt's election commission has released the final list of candidates standing in the poll for president on 23 and 24 May. Twenty-three candidates submitted nomination papers, but only 13 are running, of which at least one dropped out since ballot papers were printed. BBC Monitoring profiles the presidential hopefuls.

FORMER REGIME FIGURES

Amr Moussa
Amr Moussa Mr Moussa is focused on economic policy and restoring stability

Egypt candidate: Amr Moussa was Arab League secretary-general and, before that, Egyptian foreign minister for 10 years. But he is now keen to distance himself from former President Hosni Mubarak, portraying himself as a liberal who believes in social justice.

He says his priority as president will be "to put Egypt on the right path". He also stresses the importance of "implementing court rulings" and "reforming the three branches of the state: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary".

Mr Moussa is considered a frontrunner for the presidency. "A free economy is the best economic system as long as it is coupled with social justice," he says. "Small and medium enterprises are the backbone of the Egyptian economy."

He supports the Arab peace initiative that endorses the Arab states' recognition of Israel and normalization of relations with it in return for withdrawal from the territories occupied in the 1967 war and the establishment of a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza.

Ahmed Shafiq
Ahmed Shafiq Mr Shafiq was briefly PM under former President Mubarak

Egypt candidate: Ahmed Shafiq was Egypt's last prime minister under Mubarak. He served for just over a month, until he resigned on 3 March 2011. His candidacy sparked angry reactions from those who saw him as a Mubarak loyalist. He was initially barred from standing, but reinstated recently after an appeal. Shafiq insists that he was always a voice of the opposition within Mr Mubarak's regime.

His campaign flyers call him "the only civilian-administrative presidential candidate who has real and successful administrative experience", referring to his nine-year term as minister of civil aviation.

Campaign material says that "Shafiq is the candidate of revolutionary decisions", because he asked regional governors to name streets after dead revolutionary activists, and also froze the assets of key figures in the former regime.

Husam Khayrallah

Husam Khayrallah is the candidate of the Democratic Peace Party. Khayrallah served in the military as a paratrooper and eventually promoted to command the paratroopers. In 1976 he left the military and joined General Intelligence where he stayed until 2005.

Abdallah al-Ashal

Abdallah al-Ashal is Professor of International Law at the American University in Cairo and a former Assistant Foreign Minister.

"I look where the national interests lie and then I follow them," he says, adding that the "top priority is to protect the revolution from those who have skirmishes with the revolution now. I am ready to ally with others to defend the revolution".

ISLAMISTS

Abdul Moneim Aboul Fotouh
Abdoul Fotouh Dr Fotouh, a respected moderate, is running for office as an independent candidate

A long-time Muslim Brotherhood member known for his liberal views, Abdul Moneim Aboul Fotouh was suspended from the group after he announced in May 2011 that he intended to run for president.

Supporting the January 2011 uprising, he exhorted the West not to fear an Islamist takeover and to stand behind Egyptians' democratic aspirations.

He lists four main aspirations behind his candidacy - to promote freedom in Egypt, to promote the value of justice, to strengthen education and scientific research, and to open the doors to investment in Egypt from Arab countries and beyond.

Mohammad Mursi

Mohammad Mursi is the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party. He was the party's back-up candidate, until the original contender Khairat al-Shater lost his appeal against disqualification in mid-April.

Mohammed Mursi Mohammad Mursi was originally the reserve candidate for the Muslim Brotherhood

The Muslim Brotherhood had long feared that the ruling military council would use Egypt's election committee to disqualify Islamist presidential hopefuls in order to make room for former regime officials to win.

Muhammad Salim al-Awwa

Muhammad Salim Al-Awwa is an Islamic thinker, lawyer and international arbitrator, supported by Al-Wasat (centrist) Party.

Al-Awwa says his platform seeks to help "the poor overcome their poverty". He also supports unrestricted freedom for small businesses and the elimination of governmental red tape.

Al-Awwa says he supports "balanced" relations with the West, especially the US. On Israel, he says that Egypt seeks "normal" ties with it as an "enemy with whom we have a truce".

INDEPENDENTS

Hamdin Sabbahi

Hamdin Sabbahi is the co-founder of al-Karamah Party, which supports the nationalist ideology of Nasserism. He is known for his fierce opposition to the former regime, strong anti-Israel positions and support for the Palestinian issue. He has described Israel as "a hostile, racist, expansionist state which does not want any peace".

Khalid Ali

Khalid Ali's announcement that he would stand was welcomed by many young rebels. He is the youngest candidate, a prominent left-wing human rights activist and labour lawyer.

"I am different from others in terms of two things. First, I belong to a different generation. Second, I adopt a different discourse that takes the side of the people. I hope that the coming political regime will be preoccupied with putting an end to poverty," he says.

Hisham al-Bastawisi

Hisham al-Bastawisi is the left-wing Tajammu Party's candidate. Under Mubarak he was the deputy head of the Court of Cassation, Egypt's highest appeal court. He is known as standing up against the former regime in the wake of the 2005 parliamentary election, which was marred by violations. Since then Mr Bastawisi has been portrayed as a national hero and as a leader of the judiciary's independence movement.

Abu al-Izz al-Hariri

Abu-al-Izz al-Hariri is the candidate of the Socialist Popular Alliance Party. He is a member of parliament, a socialist and a labour activist. In 1976 he became Egypt's youngest MP. He was arrested five times in the Sadat era because of his labour activism and his opposition to the 1978 Camp David Accords. After Mubarak was ousted, Mr Hariri was one of the founding members of the Socialist Popular Alliance Party, the first left-wing party to be legally recognised after Egypt's revolution.

Mahmud Hussam

Mahmud Hussam graduated from the Police Academy in 1958 and has held several police posts.

BBC Monitoringselects and translates news from radio, television, press, news agencies and the internet from 150 countries in more than 70 languages. It is based in Caversham, UK, and has several bureaux abroad. For more reports from BBC Monitoring, click here

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