TV and radio are vital news sources, given that illiteracy is widespread, especially among women, and newspaper distribution is confined to the cities.
The state operates the Yemeni Radio and TV Corporation (YRTC) and funds some of the main newspapers.
There is no law permitting private domestic broadcasting, but the state's monopoly has been eroded by the growth of satellite TV channels, which operate from bases outside Yemen.
One of them, religious network Suhayl TV, supported anti-government factions during protests in 2011.
During the demonstrations, physical violence, the seizure of newspapers and attacks on media offices were used as part of a "policy of systematic violence" against media workers, said Reporters Without Borders.
Against this background, most Yemeni journalists have tended to resort to self-censorship.
There were 3.7 million internet users by June 2012 (Internetworldstats.com). Filtering blocks privately-owned and opposition news sites, and some sites containing material deemed immoral. The depth of filtering is inconsistent, says OpenNet Initiative.
Around 500,000 Yemenis - just over 2% of the population - use Facebook, according to a June 2012 survey by the Dubai School of Government. The platform was used in organising student protests in 2011.
Newspapers, websites and prominent political figures are increasingly setting up their own Facebook pages and Twitter accounts.
- Al-Thawrah - (The Revolution), ruling party daily
- Yemen Times - twice-weekly, English-language
- Yemen Observer - twice-weekly, English-language
- Yemen Post - weekly, English-language
- Yemen Fox - daily, English-language
- Al-Akhbar al-Yawm - (News of the Day), private, daily
- Republic of Yemen Television - state-run, operates Channel One from Sanaa, Channel Two from Aden, youth network Saba TV and Islamic channel Al-Iman
- Yemen Today - private, supportive of former president
- Suhayl TV - pro-opposition, religion-based, operates via satellite from the UK
- Al-Sa'idah - (The Happy One), private, entertainment-based, via satellite from Egypt
- Republic of Yemen Radio - state-run, operates the General Programme from Sanaa, and the Second Programme from Aden