Saudi Arabia profile

A chronology of key events:

1871 - The Ottomans take control of the province of Hasa.

Mecca: Islam's holiest city

View of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, with the Kaaba in centre

Millions of Muslims make the pilgrimage to Mecca every year. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering.

1891 - The Al Saud family are exiled to Kuwait by the Rashidi family.

1902 - Abd-al-Aziz Bin-Abd-al-Rahman Bin-Faysal Bin-Turki Bin-Abdallah Bin-Muhammad Al Saud (often known as Ibn Saud) takes control of Riyadh bringing the Al Saud family back into Saudi Arabia.

1912 - The Ikhwan (Brotherhood) is founded based on Wahhabism; it grows quickly and provides key support for Abd-al-Aziz.

1913 - Hasa is captued from the Ottomans by Abd-al-Aziz.

1921 - Abd-al-Aziz takes the title Sultan of Najd.

1924-25- The Kingdom of Hijaz, home to the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, is captured.

Brotherhood trouble

1926 - Abd-al-Aziz is proclaimed King of the Hijaz in the Grand Mosque of Mecca.

1928-30 - The Ikhwan turn against Abd-al-Aziz due to the modernisation of the region and the increasing numbers of non-Muslims. They are defeated by Abd-al-Aziz.

1932 September - The areas controlled by Abd-al-Aziz are unified under the name Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Abd-al-Aziz is proclaimed King.

1933 - King Abd-al-Aziz's eldest son, Saud, is named crown prince.

1938 - Oil is discovered and production begins under the US-controlled Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company).

1953 November - King Abd-al-Aziz dies and is succeeded by Saudi Arabia profile the Crown Prince Saud. The new king's brother Faisal is named crown prince.

King Saud deposed

1960 - Saudi Arabia is a founding member of Opec (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries).

Oil - source of Saudi wealth

Worker at a Saudi oil refinery in 1956
  • World's largest oil exporter with 25% of proven global reserves
  • Prospecting began in 1933
  • Ghawar oil field, world's largest, has estimated reserves of 70bn barrels

Saudi Arabia profile

1964 November - King Saud is deposed by his brother Faisal.

1970 - The OIC (Organisation of the Islamic Conference) is founded in Jeddah.

1972 - Saudi Arabia gains control of a proportion (20%) of Aramco, lessening US control over Saudi oil.

1973 - Saudi Arabia leads an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel in the October War against Egypt and Syria. Oil prices quadruple.

King Faisal assassinated Saudi Arabia profile

1975 March - King Faisal is assassinated by his nephew and succeeded by his brother Khalid.

1979 - Saudi Arabia severs diplomatic relations with Egypt after it makes peace with Israel.

1979 - Extremists seize the Grand Mosque of Mecca; the government regains control after 10 days and those captured are executed.

1980 - Saudi Arabia takes full control of Aramco from the US.

1981 May - Saudi Arabia is a founder member of the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council).

King Khalid dies

1982 June - King Khalid dies of a heart attack and is succeeded by his brother, Crown Prince Fahd.

1986 November - King Fahd adds the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name.

1987 - Saudi Arabia resumes diplomatic relations with Egypt, severed since 1979.

1990 - Saudi Arabia condemns Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and asks the US to intervene; it allows foreign troops, the Kuwaiti government and many of its citizens to stay in Saudi Arabia but expels citizens of Yemen and Jordan because of their governments' support of Iraq.

Saudi attacks Iraq

1991 - Saudi Arabia is involved in both air attacks on Iraq and in the land force that went on to liberate Kuwait.

1992 March - King Fahd announces the "Basic System of Government" emphasising the duties and responsiblities of a ruler. He proposes setting up a Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura).

1993 September - King Fahd decrees the division of Saudi Arabia into thirteen administrative divisions.

1993 December - The Consultative Council is inaugurated. It is composed of a chairman and 60 members chosen by the king.

1994 - Islamic dissident Osama Bin Laden is stripped of his Saudi nationality.

King Fahd ill

1995 November - King Fahd has a stroke. Crown Prince Abdullah takes on the day-to-day running of the country.

1996 February - King Fahd resumes control of state affairs.

1996 June - A bomb explodes at the US military complex near Dhahran killing 19 and wounding over 300.

1997 July - King Fahd increases the members of the Consultative Council from 60 to 90.

1999 October - Twenty Saudi women attend a session of the Consultative Council for the first time.

2001 March - Several British workers are arrested in Riyadh after a series of blasts in which a British and an American national are killed.

Relations with US
Sand dune in Saudi Arabia Large parts of southern Saudi Arabia are sand desert

2001 11 September - 15 of the 19 hijackers involved in attacks on New York and Washington are Saudi nationals.

2001 December - King Fahd calls for the eradication of terrorism, saying it is prohibited by Islam; government takes the unprecedented step of issuing ID cards to women.

2002 February - British man arrested in Riyadh after the March 2001 bombings claims the Saudi authorities tortured him and forced a confession. The man, Ron Jones, had been released after being allowed to retract his confession.

2002 May - Revised criminal code includes ban on torture and right of suspects to legal representation, but rights campaigners say violations continue.

2002 November - Saudi foreign minister says his country will not allow the US to use its facilities to attack Iraq, even in a UN-sanctioned strike.

2003 April - US says it will pull out almost all its troops from Saudi Arabia, ending a military presence dating back to the 1991 Gulf war. Both countries stress that they will remain allies.

2003 May - Suicide bombers kill 35 people at housing compounds for Westerners in Riyadh hours before US Secretary of State Colin Powell flies in for planned visit.

Signs of dissent

2003 September - More than 300 Saudi intellectuals - women as well as men - sign petition calling for far-reaching political reforms.

2003 October - Police break up unprecedented rally in centre of Riyadh calling for political reform. More than 270 people are arrested.

2003 November - Suicide attack by suspected al-Qaeda militants on residential compound in Riyadh leaves 17 dead and scores injured.

2003 November - King grants wider powers to Consultative Council, enabling it to propose legislation without his permission.

2004 February - Stampede at Hajj pilgrimage leaves 251 dead.

Attacks

2004 April - Four police officers and a security officer killed in attacks near Riyadh. Car bomb at security forces' HQ in Riyadh kills four, wounds 148. Group linked to al-Qaeda claims responsibility.

2004 May - Attack at petrochemical site in Yanbu kills five foreigners. Attack and hostage-taking at oil company compound in Khobar; 22 people are killed.

2004 June - Three gun attacks in Riyadh within a week leave two Americans and a BBC cameraman dead. The same week, a US engineer is abducted and beheaded, his filmed death causing revulsion in America.

Security forces kill local al-Qaeda leader Abdul Aziz al-Muqrin shortly afterwards, but an amnesty for militants which follows has only limited effect despite a fall in militant activity.

2004 December - Attack on US consulate in Jeddah; five staff and four attackers are killed.

Two car bombs explode in central Riyadh; security forces kill seven suspects in a subsequent raid.

2005 February-April - First-ever nationwide municipal elections. Women do not take part in the poll.

2005 1 August - Saudi royal court announces death of King Fahd. He is succeeded by the former crown prince, Abdullah.

2005 September - Five gunmen and three police officers killed in clashes in the eastern city of Dammam.

Al-Yamamah arms deal

Tornado fighter of the Saudi Royal Air Force over Riyadh

Britain's biggest arms contract, first signed in 1985

  • Involves aircraft, ships and support for Saudi military
  • Worth £40 billion for BAE Systems and partners
  • New order for 72 Eurofighter Typhoon jets confirmed in 2007
  • UK probe into alleged corruption dropped

2005 November - World Trade Organization gives the green light to Saudi Arabia's membership following 12 years of talks.

2006 January - 363 Hajj pilgrims are killed in a crush during a stone-throwing ritual in Mecca. In a separate incident, more than 70 pilgrims are killed when a hostel in the city collapses.

2006 February - Government says it has foiled a planned suicide bomb attack on a major oil-processing plant at Abqaiq.

2006 June - Six men allegedly linked to al-Qaeda are killed in a shootout with police in Riyadh, the latest of several incidents involving Islamist militants.

2006 October - Saudi Arabia moves to formalise the royal succession in an apparent bid to prevent infighting among the next generation of princes.

2006 December - Britain halts a fraud investigation into the al-Yamamah defence deal with Saudi Arabia.

2007 February - Four French nationals are killed in a suspected terror attack near the north-western ruins of Madain Saleh, which are popular with tourists.

Arrests

2007 April - Police say they have arrested 172 terror suspects, some of whom trained as pilots for suicide missions.

2007 July - Religious police are banned from detaining suspects. The force has come under increasing criticism for overzealous behaviour after recent deaths in custody.

2007 September - Saudi Arabia, Britain agree a deal for 72 Eurofighter Typhoon combat jets.

2007 October - Royal decree orders an overhaul of the judicial system.

2007 December - Authorities announce arrest of a group of men suspected of planning attacks on holy sites during the Hajj pilgrimage.

2008 April - British High Court rules British government acted unlawfully in dropping corruption inquiry into the £43bn Saudi Al-Yamamah defence deal.

2008 July - British House of Lords reverses High Court decision and says their government acted lawfully in dropping investigation into the Al-Yamamah defence deal as the Saudis had threatened to withdraw cooperation with London on security matters.

2008 December - Saudi Arabia and Qatar agree final delineation of border.

2009 February - Interpol issues security alerts for 85 men suspected of plotting attacks in Saudi Arabia, in its largest group alert. All but two are Saudis.

King Abdullah sacks head of religious police, most senior judge and central bank head in rare government reshuffle. Also appoints country's first woman minister.

2009 April - Saudi Arabia says it has arrested 11 al-Qaeda militants who were allegedly planning attacks on police installations, armed robberies and kidnappings.

2009 June - US President Barack Obama visits Saudi Arabia as part of a Middle East tour aimed at increasing US engagement with the Islamic world.

Al-Qaeda trial

2009 July - A court issues verdicts in the first explicit terrorism trial for al-Qaeda militants in the country. Officials say 330 suspects were tried, but do not specify how many were found guilty. One is sentenced to death.

2009 August - Saudi Arabia says it has arrested 44 suspected militants with alleged links to al-Qaeda.

2009 November - Saudi troops move to enforce buffer zone in northern Yemen after becoming involved in border clashes with Yemeni rebels.

2010 October - US officials confirm plan to sell $60 billion worth of arms to Saudi Arabia - the most lucrative single arms deal in US history.

2010 November - Officials announce arrest of 149 militants over past eight months, most of them allegedly belonging to al-Qaeda.

2010 December - Diplomatic cables revealed by whistle-blowing website Wikileaks suggest US concern that Saudi Arabia is the ''most significant'' source of funding for Sunni terrorist groups worldwide.

Protests

2011 February - King Abdullah announces increased welfare spending, as unrest continues across Arab world.

2011 March - Public protests banned, after small demonstrations in mainly Shia areas of the east. King Abdullah warns that threats to the nation's security and stability will not be tolerated.

Saudi troops participate in crackdown on unrest in Bahrain.

2011 June - Saudi women mount symbolic protest drive in defiance of ban on female drivers.

2011 September - King Abdullah announces more rights for women, including the right to vote and run in municipal elections and to be appointed to the consultative Shura Council - the most influential political body.

A woman is sentenced to 10 lashes after being found guilty of driving - the first time that a legal punishment has been handed down for violation of the ban on women drivers. King Abdullah overturns the sentence.

2011 October - Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz al Saud is named as the heir to the throne, after Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz al Saud dies.

2011 December - US confirms major sale of fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.

2012 April - Fifty men suspected of links to al-Qaeda go on trial. Charges include the 2003 bombing of an expatriates' compound.

2012 June - Crown Prince Nayef dies, succeeded by more liberal defence minister, the 76-year-old Prince Salman.

Saudi Arabia agrees to allow its women athletes to compete in the Olympics for the first time, against the background of speculation that the entire Saudi team might be disqualified on grounds of gender discrimination.

2012 July - Security forces detain several people in Qatif, Eastern Province, after witnesses report police opening fire on Shia protesters demanding the release of Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr and others. Two people were killed at a rally against his arrest earlier in the month.

2012 September - Human-rights activists Mohammad al-Qahtani and Abdullah al-Hamid go on trial, the former charged with setting up an unlicensed organisation.

2013 February - King Abdullah swears in 30 women to the previously all-male Shura consultative council - a major step in female participation in public life. It is the first time women have been able to hold any political office.

2013 October - Saudi Arabia turns down a non-permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, accusing the world body of double standards on account of what it sees as an international failure to act on Syria, where it staunchly backs the rebels.

Amnesty International accuses Riyadh of failing to fulfil promises to improve its human rights record following a critical report issued by the UN Human Rights Council in 2009. Amnesty says that instead of implementing the recommendations of the report, Saudi Arabia has "ratcheted up" repression.

2014 February - New anti-terrorism law introduced which activists say will further stifle dissent.

2014 March - Saudi Arabia designates several Islamist groups as terrorist organisations and bans funding or support for them. The groups include the Muslim Brotherhood, the Al-Nusra front and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

2014 September - Saudi Arabia and four other Arab states take part together with the United States in air strikes against Islamic State militant strongholds in Syria.

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