Jordan profile

Map of Jordan

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country with few natural resources, but it has played a pivotal role in the struggle for power in the Middle East.

Jordan's significance results partly from its strategic location at the crossroads of what Christians, Jews and Muslims call the Holy Land. It is a key ally of the US and, together with Egypt, one of only two Arab nations to have made peace with Israel.

The desert kingdom emerged out of the post-World War I division of the Middle East by Britain and France.

The population at that time was largely made up of tribes which had taken part in the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.

Rock city of Petra in Jordan Jordan's cultural heritage, such as the rock city of Petra, is popular with tourists

Today, those original inhabitants - known as East Bank Jordanians - are outnumbered by the descendants of Palestinian refugees from Israel and the West Bank.

At a glance

  • Politics: Real power rests with the king, who has promised to press ahead with reforms; multi-party politics was introduced in 1992
  • Economy: Jordan has few natural resources; its economic fortunes have been undermined by instability within the region; it is heavily dependent on aid but the economy has been growing
  • International: The government's pragmatic, non-confrontational line in foreign relations is often at odds with the more militant approach of local Palestinian and Islamist groups

Country profiles by BBC Monitoring

The first ruler of Jordan, the Hashemite Abdullah I, was born in Mecca and played a leading role in the Great Arab Revolt.

The death in February 1999 of King Hussein, who ruled for 46 years, left Jordan still struggling for economic and social survival, as well as regional peace.

Calls for reform

His son, Abdullah II faces the task of maintaining stability while accommodating calls for reform. A blueprint for long-term political, economic and social change - known as the National Agenda - has yet to be implemented, and the Arab Spring popular revolts across the region found some resonance in street protests.

Jordan's reputation as one of the region's safest countries was dealt a blow in late 2005 when dozens of people were killed in suicide bomb attacks on hotels in the capital. Iraq-based Islamic militants claimed responsibility. The king said Jordan had been targeted because of its location and its stances.

Unlike Arab states to the south and east, Jordan has no oil of its own. Its resources are limited to phosphates and agricultural produce. The economy depends largely on services, tourism and foreign aid, of which the US is the main provider. Jordan prides itself on its health service, one of the best in the region.

Dead Sea The Dead Sea - seen from Israel and looking across at Jordan - is one of the world's saltiest bodies of water

More on This Story

Related Stories

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites

More Middle East stories

RSS

Features

  • Atletico's Diego Godin celebrates his goal with teammate David VillaWeek in pictures

    Selection of the best news photographs from around the world


  • Susanne du ToitTop 10 Tips

    Portrait painter Susanne du Toit on being an artist


  • StampsPost Independence

    Will stamps get cheaper if Scots go it alone?


  • Rhea10 things

    Rhea birds can be extremely dangerous, plus other factlets


  • Plane at Shannon airportShannon's call

    The airport that hosted a roll-call of presidents


BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read more.

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.