The Cuban media are tightly controlled by the government and journalists must operate within the confines of laws against anti-government propaganda and the insulting of officials which carry penalties of up to three years in prison.
Private ownership of broadcast media is prohibited, and the government owns all mainstream media outlets.
Cuba is the only country in the Americas not to allow a non-state independent press, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF). Official media "serve first and foremost to transmit propaganda for the regime".
The state maintains a tight hold on the media
The US tries hard to reach Cuban audiences. Washington-backed Radio-TV Marti says it provides "balanced, uncensored" news for Cubans.
Citing UN data, Internetworldstats.com says there were 1.7 million internet users by December 2011.
US-based NGO Freedom House says most users are connected to the "closely-monitored" government intranet, and not the internet proper. A small but vibrant band of bloggers faces harassment and intimidation, it adds.
Cuba is one of RSF's "Enemies of the Internet". Connection problems are also the result of restrictions under the US embargo, says the press freedom group.
- Granma - Communist Party newspaper, website in five languages including English
- Juventud Rebelde - Union of Young Communists newspaper, web pages in English
- Radio Rebelde - news, music, sport
- Radio Reloj - news
- Radio Habana Cuba - external, languages include Spanish, English, French, Portuguese
- Radio Progreso - entertainment
- CMBF-Radio Musical Nacional - classical