Shared symbolism of global youth unrest

Anti-government protesters in Guy Fawkes masks in Ankara, Turkey (5 June 2013)

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The language and the time zone changes but, from Turkey and Bulgaria to Brazil, the symbolism of protest is increasingly the same.

The Guy Fawkes masks, the erection of tent camps, the gas masks and helmets improvised in response to the use of tear gas as a means of collective punishment. The handwritten signs - scrawled in defiance of the state's power and the uniformity of the old, collective protests of yesteryear.

And the youthfulness of the core protesters.

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This is the first generation whose lives, and psychology, have been shaped by ready access to information technology and social media”

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In Gezi Park, Istanbul, before it was cleared by police, I saw school-age teenagers turn up regularly, each afternoon in small groups, colonise what was left of the lawn and start their homework.

The pictures coming out of Sao Paulo tell a similar story.

Bypassing the state

In both cities, people born in a post-ideological era are using what symbols they can to tell a story of being modern, urban and discontented: the national flag and the shirt of the local football team are memes common to both Istanbul and Sao Paulo.

But what is driving the discontent?

When I covered the unrest in Britain and southern Europe in 2011, the answer was clear. A whole generation of young people has seen economic promises cancelled: they will work probably until their late sixties, come out of university with lifetime-crippling debts.

And, as American students famously complained in 2009, the jobs they get when they leave university are often the same jobs they did, part-time, when they were at university. I've met qualified civil engineers in Greece whose job was waiting table; the fact that I met them on a riot tells you all you need to know.

'Brazil is waking up' - BBC viewers on the unrest in their own words

With the Arab Spring, it seemed different - from the outside: these were fast-growing economies - in Libya's case spectacularly fast. But here you hit something that makes this wave of unrest unique: this is the first generation whose lives, and psychology, have been shaped by ready access to information technology and social media.

We know what this does: it makes state propaganda, censorship and a government-aligned mainstream media very easy to bypass. Egyptian state TV totally lost credibility during the first days of the uprisings against President Hosni Mubarak. This month, when Turkish TV stations tried to pull the same kind of non-reporting of unrest, they were bombarded with complaints.

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The effects of police action are magnified by ability of protesters to send images of brutality around the world immediately”

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"But," one politics professor told me, "most of the complaints were from people aged over 35. The youth don't watch TV, and in any case they have never believed what's on the news."

Social media makes it possible to organise protests fast, to react to repression fast, and to wage a quite successful propaganda war that makes the mainstream media and the spin machines of governments look foolish.

At the same time, it encourages a relatively "horizontal" structure to the protests themselves. Taksim Square in Istanbul was rare for having a 60-strong organising group; the protests in Sao Paulo have followed the more general pattern of several organising groups and an amorphous network of people who simply choose themselves where to turn up, what to write on their banners, and what to do.

As I arrived in Istanbul, some of my contacts in financial markets were mystified: why are they protesting when it is one of the fastest growing places on earth?

Get down to street level and the answer was clear. In the first place, many of the young educated people I spoke to complained that "the wealth is going to the corrupt elite"; many pointed out that despite being doctors, civil engineers, dotcom types etc, they could not afford a place to live.

'Perfectly ordinary people'

But then there was the bigger grievance: they felt the religious conservative government of the AK Party was impinging on their freedom. One Turkish fashion writer - no natural revolutionary - complained of "a growing, insidious hostility to the modern".

A police fires tear gas in Istanbul, Turkey (38 May 2013) Turkey's unrest began in late May as a small sit-in over the planned demolition of a park but spiralled into far wider anti-government protests after a police crackdown.
Protest march in Sao Paulo, Brazil (17 June 2013) People took to the streets in Brazil in mid-June to protest against the rising cost of public transport, poor public services and the amount being spent on the 2014 football World Cup and 2016 Olympics.
Protesters should slogans in Sofia, Bulgaria (14 June 2013) On 19 June, protesters in Bulgaria managed to convince Prime Minister Plamen Oresharski to scrap his controversial appointment of a new head of the national security agency.

And they saw the heavy police action against the original tent camp in Gezi Park - an environmental protest - as a symbol of this unfreedom.

In Sao Paulo, the grievances are more clearly social: "Fewer stadiums, more hospitals", reads one banner. The rising price of transport, combined with the government's determination to prioritise infrastructure and sports stadia, are what this has come to be about.

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The protesters seem to be frightened of what the government might do rather than what it actually has done.”

End Quote Caner Ozdemir Istanbul

But again, last week, it was an allegedly disproportionate police action - the arrest of a journalist for carrying vinegar (to dull the sting of tear gas), the shooting of four journalists with rubber bullets - which led to escalation.

In each case, the effects of police action are magnified by the ability of protesters to send images of brutality around the world immediately. And as a veteran of reporting more than 30 years' worth of "non-lethal" law enforcement, my impression is that the use of CS, baton rounds, water cannon is pushing police procedures all over the world towards "near lethal" levels that are increasingly unacceptable to protesters who go on the streets with no violent intent.

Though smaller by comparison, the Bulgarian protests that on Wednesday removed a controversial head of state security speak to the issues that unite those taking to the streets in many countries: it is not about poverty, say protesters, it is about corruption, the sham nature of democracy, clique politics and an elite prepared to grab the lion's share of the wealth generated by economic development.

In short, just as in 1989, when we found that people in East Europe preferred individual freedom to communism, today capitalism is becoming identified with the rule of unaccountable elites, lack of effective democratic accountability, and repressive policing.

And what the events of the last three years have shown is that perfectly ordinary people, with no ideological axe to grind, have found the means to resist it.

Paul Mason Article written by Paul Mason Paul Mason Former economics editor, Newsnight

End of an era

After 12 years on Newsnight, Economics editor Paul Mason has moved on to pastures new and this blog is now closed.

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  • rate this

    Comment number 80.

    Some may think the happenings in the world these days, or any others are not connected. They are all connected, and only the blind, will not hear. Their is a global voice. Even scarier for some. There is a global EAR!.

  • rate this

    Comment number 79.

    In the past it was fuzzy, but now it is clear, if the future is good, it has to start here. Pressure, as pressure has never been known, stop the wars/excuses for wars. Greed is the great warrior, and for the good of all, this maniac, needs to be brought under control. He is no god, nor demi. The lowest of all, the taker, he of no moral but his own, who takes, cares not of what he leaves behind.

  • rate this

    Comment number 78.

    The best way to solve the worlds problems is to scrap consumerism. We are all guilty of it and it distracts us from our societal ills and that our lifestyle is unsustainable because of it. We are already consuming over 2 Earths worth of material every year. If every country did consumerism we would be using well more then 4 Earths. Think how much protesting will happen when we run out of supplies?

  • rate this

    Comment number 77.

    Could we say that information has revealed our neighbor's humanity? That the old fears of the 'other' have been dispelled by our newly found immediate availability of instantaneous communication? And now, having dispelled the old fear and prejudice, we see people everywhere as our family and deserving of our love.

  • rate this

    Comment number 76.

    In the age of global capitalism I am struck by the same tired old arguments being trotted out to justify the status quo where wealthy elites hide in the shadows and run the lives of millions.

    Ordinary people around the world are growing tired of this and would like everyone to prosper in a new social-democracy.

    The young will inherit the earth, so they are perfectly correct in demonstrating.

  • rate this

    Comment number 75.

    Anybody who may think, Oh no!, not this old chestnut, its roots have taken, the bud may be about to spring. Hypothetical change it may appear to some, but change is happening all the time. If only those who could in a good, peaceful way, would. We all have the power, to make the change.

  • rate this

    Comment number 74.

    Unlike the nature of younger British people who somewhat messed up their chance with violent rioting a couple of years or so back, the nature of the Brazilian culture may set a more peaceful style of objection to the direction the human culture is being led down. Its an opportunity to question human values and the damage being done to the planet. The Belo Monte dam is an example

  • rate this

    Comment number 73.

    The-never-had-it-so-goods continue to have it all at the expense of their children/grandchildren, while continually bemoaning younger people.

    You only have to watch the retired for any length of time to see their narrow-mindedness, ignorance and take-all attitude.

    Big house, campervan, foreign holiday, cruise, personalised plate, state pension, bus pass and winter fuel payment.


  • rate this

    Comment number 72.

    jb @69
    Ungrateful "young will never wait" their turn? While old hang-on to "their turn" - their command of the service of others - as long as possible?

    Given set example, non-accidental deprivation of egalitarian education, no surprise the young accept help from wealthy parents, or take 'best bets' of public or corporate service, or swim for flotsam in the black economy, criminality, perhaps rage

  • rate this

    Comment number 71.

    @69 That's nonsense. As a child (one of three) my parents afforded a four bed detached new-build in a semi-rural market town on one (less than average) wage.

    My two children see us live in a three bed semi-detached, afforded by one full-time professional and one full-time (all-time, no holidays) self-employed.

    Never has such a large number of people, who never had it bad, have it so good.

  • rate this

    Comment number 70.

    I am currently in Sao Paolo, and must say the media coverage is sensationalizing events here. I attended demos here Tues and Thurs, all very peaceful and celebrationary - no violent riots as shown in the Media.
    I did witness photographers encouraging protesters presumably to improve their chance of selling images. most were well behaved, low police presence, more a celebration than a riot

  • rate this

    Comment number 69.

    The young will never wait unless they are slapped down. If they are not then war and chaos will soon deplete them. Their alleged grievances are far less than their parents experienced. They must wait their turn in life and expect too much for too little. Stop them now before chaos descends.

  • rate this

    Comment number 68.

    I admire your 20-point breakdown; believe you are spot-on.
    If there is to be any real change the 2% elite must be brought down; this can only happen with protest movement like "The Occupy Movement".
    This being said, I see signs of economic collapse, economic revolution, & I sniff the whiff of socialism, or even communism: "From each according to his ability to each according to his need."

  • rate this

    Comment number 67.

    bawh @66
    'close financial gap'

    IF target merely "obscene, disgusting and rising wealth gap", we will wake day-after-the-revolution to find 'at the top', the less obscene & less disgusting, faces changed or not, still helplessly corrupted - frankly or subtly - from shareable democratic purpose

    That 'hard truth' faced, equality no bad fate: universal security & rational trust. Real growth lift-off

  • rate this

    Comment number 66.

    Its the obscene, disgusting and rising wealth gap thats fueling unrest in the developed world. Those at the top earning thousands of times as much as those at the bottom. For too long the message has been pedalled that this is how things are and you have to accept it. Why are things like this? Is it morally right? Governments should, and must, start fighting vigorously to close the financial gap.

  • rate this

    Comment number 65.

    GH @48
    "we take for granted"
    All owed to "capitalism"?

    Meaning 'personal capitalism', just as millennia ago to Baal!

    As the children of 'mixed forebears' - honest enquirers & toilers, AND the less honest - we are NOT obliged to accept dependency on such a mix (on WWIII for 'next RADAR' etc.) to the death. As organisation of labour for deferred benefit, 'capitalism' will serve in equal democracy.

  • rate this

    Comment number 64.

    IT & computer tech has enabled globalisation 2 concentrate 2 'common' aims, themes, wants, desires, problems. IT & Computers (robotics) reduced need 4 labour globally whilst Govts seeks hedgemonic control of popn & comparative advantages via education. Yet, education stimulates brains & enhanced brains cannot cope with boredom of unemployment, low pay, underemployment.

  • rate this

    Comment number 63.

    @27. andreiakeller
    "Good luck with 4. We've been trying to get rid of corruption for years."

    There is a simple legal solution to corruption which has been known for ages, but never applied. You make it legal to offer a bribe but illegal to accept one. If you offer a bribe and then highlight and show it's acceptance, you get your money back.

  • rate this

    Comment number 62.

    Older folk not having to retire, younger folk laden with debt and house prices at unaffordable levels for a majority.

    I'd be pretty furious too if I was 20 in this day and age.

  • rate this

    Comment number 61.

    Rising youth unemployment is the Achilles heel of the recovering developed and upcoming developing economy; inequality is even rising traditionally egalitarian nations in Northern/Central Europe. While I am somewhat older than the protesters out there and do have a stable job, I can feel for them, and I sincerely concerned how my pensions would end up like.


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