Europe: A week of speeches and symbolism

Chancellor Merkel and President Hollande in Oslo, France and Germany displayed unity at the EU's Nobel Peace Prize ceremony in December

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In Britain it may be the week of David Cameron's much-awaited speech, but in the rest of Europe it is the week that celebrates 50 years of Franco-German friendship.

On 22 January 1963 General de Gaulle of France and Germany's Konrad Adenauer signed the Elysee Treaty in Paris. On Tuesday the friendship between the two countries will be lavishly celebrated in Berlin.

The foundation stone of the European project has been Franco-German co-operation.

Gen de Gaulle described Europe as "a coach and horses, with Germany the horse and France the coachman".

Despite ups and downs in the relationship, Germany and France have been the designers and shapers of the EU that the British are now agonising over.

There will be a stark contrast this week. David Cameron will warn that, without changes, "the danger is that Europe will fail and the British people will drift towards the exit". Chancellor Merkel and President Hollande will speak confidently about not only the Franco-German relationship but the future of Europe.

In Berlin the French flag will fly beside that of Germany. There will be a joint cabinet meeting, a dinner and a concert. More than 500 French MPs will travel to the German capital for a joint session with the Bundestag. It will be a festival of friendship.

The relationship on many levels is remarkably deep. There have been eight million student exchanges between the two countries. More than 2,000 French and German towns have a partnership. The political links are equally strong, but at times tempestuous.

There have been moving history moments, like in 1984, when Francois Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl held hands at a World War I cemetery in Verdun. There have been difficult times. President Chirac and Chancellor Schroeder detested each other before learning to work together. President Sarkozy and Chancellor Merkel, despite many arguments, became allies and friends during the fight to save the euro.

Different visions

This week's celebrations cannot disguise that the current relationship is strained. On President Hollande's side there is still bitterness that Chancellor Merkel backed Mr Sarkozy so openly during the French election. Mr Hollande believes that the Germans are wrong to place such emphasis on austerity and cutting deficits. He has challenged German power by insisting "it is not for Germany to decide for the rest of Europe".

Mr Hollande has, on occasions, sided with the Italians and Spanish against the Germans. He has suggested that Mrs Merkel's actions in Europe are being driven by the German elections in September.

The core of the problem is that the two countries are no longer equals. Economic success has made Germany Europe's indispensable power . A recent poll suggests far more Germans view the relationship as equal than the French, who have become the junior partners.

President Sarkozy told the French they needed to become more like the Germans - but that did not go down well with voters. One-third of the French, in a recent poll, harbour envy or mistrust towards Germany.

The Germans openly worry about France. One of its papers ran the headline "France, the new Greece?" Berlin believes that Mr Hollande has wasted his first months in office. The Germans note a decline in French competitiveness. They point out that Spain, Italy and Greece are doing more to reform their economies than France.

Out of sync?

The former French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing said Europe "cannot move ahead without the Franco-German engine". Ulrike Guerot, from the European Council on Foreign Relations think tank, says "France must regain its stability in order to find a balance with Germany for the good of Europe".

So the UK is calling for Europe to change at a moment of uncertainty in the Franco-German relationship.

Both countries want Britain in the EU as a counterbalance to the other. The Germans see the British as an ally over free trade and open markets ; the French are less willing than the Germans to hand over sovereignty to Brussels. What neither country will tolerate is Britain disrupting or in some way paralysing the project.

For all the current strains it is France and Germany who will continue to shape the future of the EU - with or without the UK.

So this week it is worth listening not just to David Cameron's speech but also to the words coming from Berlin.

Gavin Hewitt Article written by Gavin Hewitt Gavin Hewitt Europe editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 803.

    798 Ricky

    "De Gaulle did his best to humiliate the UK and keep the UK out of European politics"

    And no doubt there are now many in Europe who wish they had listened to him. He knew the old English adage of 'divide and rule' only too well.

    Odd that the anti-EU brigade never objects to us kowtowing to the Americans and endangering the British public by following them into illegal wars.

  • rate this

    Comment number 802.

    799: Good question. The thing with the casino of life though is that it seems to be impossible to succsessfully plan for the long term! Just when you think you know what the safe bets are...a load of chips go down the drain. That's true of world affairs as much as anything else. Yes the UK and the West as a whole has often been short-termist in its foreign policy but the alternative is high risk.

  • rate this

    Comment number 801.

    #798 Rickydavie

    - " De Gaulle did his best to humiliate the UK and keep the UK out of European politics. De Gaulle had his own legacy and that was to enhance his own stature."

    --during that time he lived in Britain and obviously learned much about Britain -- the same as Europe and the EU is now learning 70 years later.

    --others may equally be pompous and undeserved of a place at the table ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 800.

    @798. Rickydavie

    De Gaulle is quoted as saying something like "they (the allies) what is best for New Europe ?allies . All I want is what is best for France. The man was awful and the biggest mistake the Allies made was giving that pompous man a place at the table

  • rate this

    Comment number 799.

    #797 MGUK82

    "They died trying to weaken/stop the Nazis. I rather doubt they were thinking much further ahead than that."

    --shouldn´t we ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 798.

    De Gaulle was a psychopath on humanity. The UK gave De Gaulle a home and a base during world war2, yet De Gaulle did his best to humiliate the UK and keep the UK out of European politics. De Gaulle had his own legacy and that was to enhance his own stature.

  • rate this

    Comment number 797.

    They died trying to weaken/stop the Nazis. I rather doubt they were thinking much further ahead than that.

  • rate this

    Comment number 796.

    #793 MGUK82

    -- My biggest hope is that never happens again.

    -- May I give one thought ?

    --There was at the time ´Fortress Europe´ --now we have ´Fortress UK`

    -- Didn´t they die for more than that ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 795.

    You Brits need to lose the attitude - your Olympics are over, your colonial past is over, your monarchy is almost over. Jump on the last train or you'll be left standing by with your thumbs in the air.

  • rate this

    Comment number 794.

    762 Paul

    "An organization that hasn't had its finances signed off in years"

    Not that old chestnut again.
    80% of the budget is spent in the EU member states and the failures are often down to the national and local governments.

    Fraud is higher in the UK's national accounts as the EU sets higher standards than those required by our PARLIAMENT (98% rather than our 95%).

  • rate this

    Comment number 793.

    790: That as well - just saying that the British military obviously didn't abandon occupied France entirely. I'm not sure what else we were meant to do. We retreated, we kept a few people around and we returned in force when we were able to.

  • rate this

    Comment number 792.

    788 Phffft

    -- "But why when each Country has its National Government that is directly voted in or out do we need a second central government."

    -- Evidence that many national governments are failures has been proven. Transfers of funds (taxes) must have planning and security -- so that living standards rise and are sustainable.

    --national governments cannot be trusted on their own.

  • rate this

    Comment number 791.

    Interesting questions.
    If we had had a central European government elected by all the citizens of Europe the economic policies in the last few years might have been be quite different.
    Do we need a UK central government?
    I would go for a central European level and below that regional parliaments in Wales, London, Scotland, England.

  • rate this

    Comment number 790.


    "what was my late grandfather's RAF squadron doing in occupied France - other than getting a lot of themselves killed!"

    -- defending Britain ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 789.

    707: I thought we went there to make sure the Taliban weren't in a position to shelter Al Queda - in other words, protecting people back home. If we can help the Afghans on top of that then great but increasingly they are killing the people that are trying to help them over petty stuff!

  • rate this

    Comment number 788.

    784. prolemmie
    Thank you for replying.

    But why when each Country has its National Government that is directly voted in or out do we need a second central government.Its already proved remote asking for increased budget whilst especially Southern Nations really struggle.Why that single coinage?.

  • rate this

    Comment number 787.

    Margeret: If the French feel they were deserted at Dunkirk then what was my late grandfather's RAF squadron doing in occupied France - other than getting a lot of themselves killed!

  • rate this

    Comment number 786.

    The majority of Brits is still the ´working class´. They were shoved off to two wars within 20 years and grudgingly promised a better future --what do they now ?-- a poverty approaching that of before.

    -- That has always been Britain --any attempt at change is treason

    -- the EEC or EU must keep the poverty, ignorance and status quo --it must not succeed.

    --no new better horizons allowed.

  • rate this

    Comment number 785.

    Seems to me we get all the bills and none of the benefits. We have no freedom of movement,we have the UK passport at £70 odd a throw. We have to pay to change our money if we go abroad,we work longer for less and retire later. But none of that is the fault of the EU,we 'opted out' of granting our citizens the same rights. What we need is a government prepared to go wholly into the EU.

  • rate this

    Comment number 784.

    Federalism is used to describe a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (states or provinces). The system is based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments, creating a federation.


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