Journalists in Dagestan are "physically attacked and murdered with impunity", Reporters Without Borders (RSF) said after a 2011 fact-finding visit.
While the territory does have media pluralism, RSF warned that this is endangered by economic problems and attempts to manipulate the media.
Television is the most popular source for news and entertainment. Local relays of Russian networks are widely available.
A handful of local radio stations competes with local relays of around a dozen Russian networks. Newspapers are owned either by the state or by wealthy individuals. Distribution is inefficient and can be blocked by the authorities.
Around 40 per cent of Dagestanis use the internet, a 2011 Russian survey suggested. Government and opposition groups use blogs, websites, YouTube and Facebook to promote their views. There are more than 200 active bloggers; most of them use Russian platform LiveJournal.
- Dagestanskaya Pravda - published by republic's government
- Chernovik - private weekly
- Novoye Delo - private weekly
- RIA Dagestan - state-run news agency, pages in English