Norway remembers Utoeya and Oslo victims, one year on
Norway has commemorated one year since 77 people were killed and 242 hurt in gun and bomb attacks in Oslo and on the island of Utoeya.
PM Jens Stoltenberg laid a wreath in Oslo before travelling to Utoeya, where he was joined by hundreds of people, including relatives of the dead.
Anders Behring Breivik, who has admitted carrying out the two attacks, remains on trial.
"The killer failed; the people have won," Mr Stoltenberg said.
Most of the dead were young activists with the Labour Party who had been staying on Utoeya as part of a summer camp.National debate
Church services, a concert and other events were held around Norway.
At the scene
As Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg addressed the crowds gathered outside the still devastated government headquarters in Oslo, a long day of remembrance began.
Watched by hundreds of people who had gathered in the city centre, and many more still watching on national TV, Mr Stoltenberg laid down a wreath in red, white and blue - the colours of the Norwegian flag.
Many had come carrying red roses, the symbol of the Labour Party, but also a symbol of the love and tolerance with which many people here say they want to confront the horror, rather than with anger. One survivor of the bomb told BBC News she felt the wreath-laying was a worthy ceremony, allowing people to remember those who died but also to start looking forward.
Later, she and many others also took part in another event - at Utoeya island, where Anders Breivik killed 69 mainly young people. A special memorial service also took place in Oslo cathedral - one of many places holding such services.
"It's been a very heavy year for all of us. Not a day has passed the tragedy has not filled the room," Mr Stoltenberg said at a wreath-laying ceremony in Oslo.
"The bomb and bullets were aimed at changing Norway. The Norwegian people responded by embracing our values," he said.
"Let us honour the dead by being happy about the life they had, and the life we share."
King Harald and other members of the royal family joined Mr Stoltenberg at a memorial service in Oslo.
Later, Mr Stoltenberg gave a speech to Labour Party youth on Utoeya before laying a wreath there at 18:45 - the time a year ago when Breivik was arrested.
One of those who revisited the island was 24-year-old Tore Sinding Bekkedal, who said summer camps should be held on the island again soon.
"There are some people who want to take it slow, but I'm way over the other end of the scale. I'll pitch a tent there as soon as practically possible," Mr Bekkedal said.
In the evening, a national memorial concert with mainly Norwegian musicians was held.
Hundreds of relatives and survivors held a private service on Utoeya on Sunday morning.
Christin Bjelland, the mother of a survivor of the shootings, said the commemorations were especially important for the bereaved.
"What happened here is so huge, there were so many affected, that I think it means a lot to come together for those who wish and feel the love and care between all the affected," she said.Tolerance and democracy
Many of the buildings that were damaged in the bomb attack have not yet been fully repaired.
The prime minister's office and the ministry of health buildings are still covered in plastic.
22 July attacks
- 8 people killed and 209 injured by bomb in Oslo
- 69 people killed on Utoeya island, of them 34 aged between 14 and 17
- 33 injured on Utoeya
- Nearly 900 people affected by attacks
The attacks, regarded as the worst act of violence in Norway since World War II, sparked a national debate about the nature of tolerance and democracy in the country.
Breivik, who has been on trial for three months, has tried to justify the attacks by claiming he was trying to stop Muslims from taking over Norway.
But the government, and much of the population, have actively promoted tolerance and openness to counter Breivik's views.
"I think that people thought it a bit naive to cling to these values of openness in a situation like that," said Vegard Groeslie Wennesland, a Labour Party activist who survived the attack.
"But I think it's more naive to think that brutal police, or more restrictive policies will bring you a safer society."
Judges are to announce next month whether Breivik is sane or insane, and therefore whether he will be given a long prison sentence or be sent to a secure psychiatric ward.