Eurozone crisis: North versus South

Abandoned construction in Ciudad Valdeluz, Spain, 9 Jul 12 Abandoned construction in Ciudad Valdeluz: Spain was burdened with failed housing projects after the property boom

Spain's Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy has today announced further austerity measures. Pledges only recently made have been broken. VAT is going up, from 18% to 21%.

The aim is to save 65bn euros (£51bn; $80bn) over two-and-a-half years. The measures will test further the patience of the Spanish people.

They will have watched how begrudgingly other eurozone nations agreed to a first tranche of bailout money for the Spanish banks. They had been told, when the bank bailout was first announced, that there would be no "men in black", no troika imposing a tough reform programme on them.

It is certainly the case that Spain is not in the same position as Greece, but the troika of the EU, IMF and European Central Bank will be overseeing their banking sector.

The Finnish Prime Minister, Jyrki Katainen, put it plainly: the eurozone's crisis had created a lack of trust between the northern countries and southern European countries. The Italian Prime Minister, Mario Monti, raged against some of those northern countries after they tried to unpick elements of a deal struck at a summit last month.

The tension between countries like Finland, the Netherlands and Germany on the one hand and countries like Spain, Italy and Greece on the other is tangible. It stands in the way of a short-term answer to the crisis and hangs dangerously over the future.

Culture clash

In the so-called "Club Med" countries Germany is seen as the author of austerity, helping drive youth unemployment in Italy, Spain and Greece to unprecedented levels. Germany wants to go much further. It seeks to change the economic culture of the South. In exchange for helping these weaker countries it wants to embed its economic model with the rest of the eurozone. Its instrument is the pact that enforces discipline over budgets. For the "Club Med" it means years of fiscal austerity.

The South's most potent weapon is to threaten that they cannot continue paying high borrowing costs.

Spain and Italy together are too big to be rescued. So at the recent summit they muscled Germany and other northern countries to accept that the eurozone's main rescue fund could help directly troubled banks without going via national governments and so increasing their debts. They also won a concession that the rescue fund could be used to buy government bonds without well-behaved countries having to accept new austerity conditions.

Within days of the meeting having ended it was apparent there were differences of interpretation. The Germans said that Spanish banks could not be helped directly until after the first elements of a banking union were in place. That could take months, or even longer. Finland said that it could not join in helping Spain without getting Madrid to providing collateral.

The South wants solidarity; the North does not want to accept further liability for the debts of nations they mistrust. What holds these countries together is fear; fear of the zone disintegrating and the unknown.

The President of the German Bundesbank, Jens Weidmann, warned that the bloc was "constantly mutualising risks and weakening the agreed rules". There is growing resistance in Germany to taking on more liability for the southern countries and some politicians have turned to the Constitutional Court to judge whether the ESM, the planned permanent bailout fund, violates German law.

What lies behind much of this is culture. There are vast differences between the North and the South. Even today, after two years of crisis, the Spanish prime minister is struggling to clean up Spain's public finances. It is still proving difficult to collect taxes.

Plagued by corruption

Italy under Mario Monti has embraced labour reforms. The IMF says they go in the right direction but more needs to be done. Only this week it was reported that Mafia groups earned more than 16bn euros from environmental crimes. Despite heroic resistance to the Mafia it remains a potent force. Change has not been embraced by the political class.

In his book, Good Italy Bad Italy, Bill Emmott describes how Italian politicians are still paid salaries three times those of their French counterparts and they grant themselves an array of perks including subsidised air travel.

France too grapples with its culture. Politically it struggles to address its fundamental problem: the state spends too much on social programmes. Meanwhile in the past 10 years it has witnessed a 25% decline in competitiveness vis-a-vis Germany.

More and more pressure is being put on the AAA-rated countries of the North to help the South, but in exchange they want southern Europe to re-engineer their economies - a painful process that challenges not just budgets but culture.

Gavin Hewitt Article written by Gavin Hewitt Gavin Hewitt Europe editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 357.

    My point isn't whether or not Europe's a country, it's that it's not first world.There are spots here and there but that is not nearly enough.Not only has Europe failed to produce a single Apple Computer, IBM, Micorsoft, Hewlitt Packard, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, etc, it has not produced a single Toyota, Mitsubishi, or Sony either. If you are not first world then living as though you were is ruinous

  • rate this

    Comment number 356.

    319"Europe is not a country!"
    It's not for lack of trying hard on some people's part. I don't think it ever will be a country but loss of sovereignty by many of its constuents leaves them less than countries already.So what is Europe if not a country or group of countries.It's......nothing.

    323"The US has in effect only arrived in the last 5 minutes."

    And eclipsed all of them..combined!

  • rate this

    Comment number 355.

    354 QOT

    "on the other BBC blogs, such opt-outs (more to come) is closely followed-- a return to Serfdom under ´Sovereignty´."

    Many senior doctors actually supported the long hours and regularly refused to back complaints by juniors with the proviso: "We had to do it and it didn't do us any harm"
    The argument some still make to bring back hanging.

    Sleep beckons. - good night all.

  • rate this

    Comment number 354.

    #353 MH

    I know about UK working conditions --compared with many European countries --´Pathetic´ would be a compliment.

    -on the other BBC blogs, such opt-outs (more to come) is closely followed-- a return to Serfdom under ´Sovereignty´.

    --or to be more exact --a continuation of it.

    --only the EU can stop it --Hague etc. know it -- and a large portion of the UK ´are buying wooden nickels´

  • rate this

    Comment number 353.

    350 QOT

    "Today you support long working hours for those with work."
    You may not know that until the EU Working Time Directive came into force our junior hospital doctors regularly worked a 90 hour week or 14-hour shifts which was not only detrimental to their own health but that of their patients. Can you imagine a lorry driver doing the same hours without being a menace on the roads?

  • rate this

    Comment number 352.

    #346 Stefano

    -- I tried to read this long, complicated article

    It verifies what you said -- but the economists appear baffled why the system works --but until now it has.

  • rate this

    Comment number 351.

    347 DM

    Is this the story about the young man who dialed 999 and begged the police for help and staff still ignored him?

    Irrespective of what the coroner may have said, it should have been common decency to attend to the poor man.

    To blame EU rules is outrageous and smacks of an anti-EU DMail scare story.

    What of all the other cases of neglect towards the elderly in our hospitals?

  • rate this

    Comment number 350.

    #347 dmr

    --only yesterday you complained that your sons could not find work because of Eastern Europeans in the UK.

    Today you support long working hours for those with work.

    -- Eastern Europeans may be a part of your sons´ problem --but you yourself appear to be the other part of their problems.

  • rate this

    Comment number 349.

    Or this British reality

    89. digbic78

    Dear Mr Hague,

    I work an eleven hour day five days a week.That is 55 hrs a week.I opted out of the 48hr week by signing a declaration that I was happy to do have no idea of how the legislation in the UK works!Between the politicans and the british public we really are up the creek without a paddle

    -- But they have ´Sovereignty´ ?


  • rate this

    Comment number 348.

    341 Lucy

    How is an American going to Canada or Mexico
    any different than a Scotch going to Italy or France?
    My student son bought a European rail card during the summer holidays and his monthly trip would include travelling to France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Germany, Denmark - I think his ticket was valid in 15 countries. Can you imagine the coins he brought back?

  • rate this

    Comment number 347.

    QOT, a young cancer sufferer died of dehydration after an operation. The coroner said EU rules played a significant part in his death.
    The 48 hour ruling is damaging the health service in this country.
    Surely it is up to the individual how many hours they would like to work. Not some Eurocrat on hundreds of thousands a year for a twenty hour week, who can afford to scorn overtime.

  • rate this

    Comment number 346.

    The main exposure of Italian banks is towards internal debts in the form of state bonds or private debts.While the value of the first ones is determined by the markets,the second one is mainly linked to houses mortgages or loans.This second one is of lower risk due to the Italian attitude of banks accepting mortgages for a low percentage of the value of the house.Housing market in Italy is steady.

  • rate this

    Comment number 345.

    Pressure is on the UK

    --Not all are fooled.

    90. actorperish

    The idea that European legislation is grinding the UK economy down is a complete myth. Employment laws in the UK are heavily biased towards employers and moving increasingly further that way. The real question is why should employees ...excessive hours over the norm in the first place ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 344.

  • rate this

    Comment number 343.

    Let me put something straight here. In this article like most of mr. Hewitt's Italy is portrait as a debtor country in the league of Ireland Portugal Greece and now Spain. As a mattter of fact, and contrarily to the portraited situation, Italy is financing 20% of the esm fund helping those countries. The Italian banks are far from needing a bailout as their exposure to anwarrented debt is minimal.

  • rate this

    Comment number 342.

    Marg: no one has to give up their independence, language or sovereignty

    You did have to give up your boundaries correct?

    D: I for one would never support a govt that defends another country's interest at the expense of my country's

    Although I love my state the most
    I love each+every state in USA

  • rate this

    Comment number 341.

    Marg: Different to going to Canada or Mexico

    How is an American going to Canada or Mexico
    any different than
    a Scotch going to Italy or France?

    It used to be the same difference

    I guess now that Europe doesn't have any boundaries, shares the same currency,etc it is different than N America

    USA has borders w/ Mexico+Canada, different currencies, etc
    cause' we're not the same country

  • rate this

    Comment number 340.

    @338 Disagree. The moment a country joined the EZ it gave all control of its currency to the ECB, and since 1999 sovereignty has slowly but surely been eroded with more and more power being transferred to Brusscow.

  • rate this

    Comment number 339.

    @337 Remember what British Prime Minister Gladstone once said: countries do not have friendships, only interests.
    The countries of Europe all have different interests and each of them will put its own interests first- and rightly so. I for one would never support a govt that defends another country's interest at the expense of my country's.

  • rate this

    Comment number 338.

    336 Lucy

    When Americans go to Canada or Mexico we have to change our money

    Pre euro we had 27 member states with different currencies and even now only 17 belong to the euro. Different to going to Canada or Mexico.
    And I repeat no one has to give up their independence, language or sovereignty.

    Compare it to a nuclear family - we share a common ideal but want to live in our own houses


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