Europe: Back from the brink

German Chancellor Angela Merkel (C) talks with European Central Bank President Mario Draghi and Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti (R)

The summer of crisis, collapse and political disorientation is cancelled.

Last night the EU leaders took steps which, though not a complete solution to the crisis, averted its escalation. Crucially Angela Merkel did what she had insisted was impossible. She made major concessions on short-term measures to ease the crisis without achieving the long-term quid-pro-quo, German politics had dictated she must demand.

The EU leaders made a series of moves, each separately important, which have averted catastrophe - allowing Europe's troubles to become "just a crisis" again.

First, the Spanish bank bailout has been changed. Money will be injected directly into banks with no corresponding increase in Spain's national debt. To be clear - the liability is being assumed jointly by countries still healthy enough to inject money into the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) fund. The Irish bailout will be re-done in this way (though there is more detail to follow there).

Second - and an important precedent - the Spanish bank bailout money will not create "senior" claims by the bailout fund. Up to now, the countries lending the money had planned to award themselves "seniority" over private sector investors, which could have provoked massive capital flight from the bailed-out economies.

Third, they removed the "Troika-discipline" from future bailouts. If Italy and Spain are complying with the rules of the fiscal compact agreed last December, they can get bailout money from the 500bn euro fund without having to impose tough new austerity conditions.

Fourth, they agreed a (fairly meager, but morally significant) fiscal stimulus, borrowing money against structural funds to boost 130bn euros (£105bn) into the economies facing collapse.

Finally they agreed to move to a single banking supervisor by 1 January 2013; not the "full banking union" desired by some, but a clear and irrevocable step towards it. The single regulator is the only condition secured by Germany for the release of all the other monies and permissions.

'Vicious circle'

What's missing is the commitment, demanded by Italy, for the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) and ESM to intervene in the bond markets - buying the bonds of stricken countries - in a kind of bailout-via-the-market. But it is still permitted and if done, it will be led by the European Central Bank, allowing the ECB to use the 500bn euro fund in a way that fudges fiscal and monetary intervention.

The memorandum begins: "We affirm that it is imperative to break the vicious circle between banks and sovereigns." And to this extent it does what it says on the tin.

Europe stood on the brink of a Spanish and Italian debt crisis that would have a) required massive austerity in both countries and b) probably been the signal for massive capital flight from Europe. There was real fear that one or more countries would exit the euro; that Spain and Italy would be forced to default; that the subsequent revaluation of assets would sink several core-country banks; that the technocrats, having failed, would be replaced in short order by ideological politicians, not least a back-from-zombification Silvio Berlusconi.

This is all averted - provided the Germans buy what Merkel signed up to.

However, having broken the link between bank and sovereign debt crises, these crises still exist.

Spain is - as Joe Stiglitz said on BBC Newsnight last night - in a depression. Italy is stagnating. There is still an inter-bank credit crunch across Europe and all three sectors - consumer, banks and governments - are still overwhelmed by bad debt.

As the hours ticked towards conclusion, I received the latest of several briefings from people who were "talking to the Germans", that is, to senior CDU politicians, bankers, businesspeople and so on. The message was "we're prepared to inflict pain on Europe now - including a recession on ourselves - to secure tough fiscal rules for the next generation. We can sit it out."

That is probably how Mrs Merkel went into the meeting thinking. But the rapid shift in the balance of forces in Europe defeated her and she could no longer use Sarkozy as a human shield.

Instead she has come out of the bruising overnight encounter committed to bailing out southern Europe with German taxpayers' funds, with no seniority for the debt and no special conditions of austerity such as were imposed on Greece, Portugal and Ireland.

Focus on growth

So though it is not the end of the crisis, it is the end of an era - which started with the first Greek bailout and ended in Brussels last night - in which Franco-German policy was to impose internal devaluation measures on the south that caused one Daily Telegraph economist to describe them as "basically fascist".

Growth is the solution to indebtedness, is the subtext of last night. Growth plus regular, long-term fiscal balancing measures and tough supervision of the banks. This, in its own way, brings Europe into line with America, where President Obama has completed the image of this as a corner-turning week by facing down the challenge to his healthcare law.

That leaves only one major economy committed to austerity first and growth maybe. It is an economy that could do with a bit of effective banking supervision itself. If the bond markets become convinced Europe is stabilised, they may now look quizzically at this last major economy, mired in a double-dip recession and with - on the admission of its industry minister - no real growth strategy. Meanwhile that country's people see the 17-member eurozone racing towards a banking union and locked-in fiscal policies.

To put it another way: the battle of Europe is over (for now). The battle of Britain may be about to begin.

Paul Mason Article written by Paul Mason Paul Mason Former economics editor, Newsnight

End of an era

After 12 years on Newsnight, Economics editor Paul Mason has moved on to pastures new and this blog is now closed.

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  • rate this

    Comment number 56.

    Chanting "Growth is the answer.", like a medicine man seeking to bring rain through dance, seems to impress journalists and the party a lot more than it shines any light on what happens next.

    "We need growth." is a mere slogan. It says nothing of generating growth through debt, which is precisely how the EU got to its current position. "We need more members for the scheme." is the ponzai creed.

  • rate this

    Comment number 55.

    The symptoms are treated for now, waiting is for the “catch 22” to overtake. Is it truly not obvious that the individual European countries will never become like a Unite States of America? Please, leader don’t be fools and pursue a common global economic protocol based on the eternal Laws of Economics. For your information Google “The World Monetary Order to Come”.

  • rate this

    Comment number 54.

    britians turn to take a hit i suspect

  • rate this

    Comment number 53.

    It wont be long before bashing the southern EU members falls out of fashion with the Germans and French.

    They will realise the futility of bashing small countries. For the same reason there is no point in bashing Denmark.

    The UK with The City is another matter however.

    I suspect the sights will be adjusted soon.

    Cameron will be seen for what he is. Posh boy on the take.
    City seen as a drain..

  • rate this

    Comment number 52.

    Once again eurozone politicians have 'fixed' the problem by breaking/changing there own rules

    if the rules are wrong, based on a faulty theory, then its not such a bad thing to break them. If they want to fix the Euro properly then they will have to break a lot more of their rules

  • rate this

    Comment number 51.

    They've replaced a sticking plaster with a waterproof sticking plaster, maybe even a tourniquet. The proper thing would be to explain to the German people that the Euro crisis is a consequence of having an asymmetric currency space, which requires money either to make it symmetric or for regular bailouts. Germany as the richest has to bear most the cost but also gains much & let the people decide

  • rate this

    Comment number 50.

    Growth is the solution we can only aspire to. The foundation of that growth can only develop from rebalanced economies. This will take years of struggle. Can our economy stay afloat for the necessary period? I fear not. The spivs with their quick fix will gain another victory.

    If we are the moral people which I believe we are, we have to focus on a long and bitter struggle to rebuild our nation.

  • rate this

    Comment number 49.

    Once again eurozone politicians have 'fixed' the problem by breaking/changing there own rules. Why do they bother with rules if every time it gets tough they cave in and fudge the isssues again. As per normal the left wing BBC has leapt in on there side, god forbid that the eurozone could be a bad idea.

  • rate this

    Comment number 48.

    Good intentioned but mis-informed European politicians are excacerbating the problem in the EZ.As BluesBerry has pointed up, it is the Anglo-American banking system, solidified, entrenched and expanded through the WTO that is responsible for,(and designed to be so),the monetisation of public services and devaluation of western economies.The race to the bottom is working to shrink our economies.

  • rate this

    Comment number 47.

    It's important to remember that it is the Anglo/American banking system that has wounded the global banking system. I find no evidence that EU was in collusion or that most developing nations were in collusion. So it is the Anglo/American banking system, especially its most nefarious products like derivatives, CDOS & SWAPS that must be investigated, addressed, and penalized - harshly.

  • rate this

    Comment number 46.

    What a joke! Bankers screwed the economy and Brussels rewards them! As long as te bankers control the money we are doomed. The brainless big wigs in Brussels still haven't got it yet... shame on them!!! A 12 years old has more brains and guts that all the phony bunch in Brussels:

  • rate this

    Comment number 45.

    @44 not nessercarily. it could mean our economy would stabalise and george osbourn woul;d be out of a job.

  • rate this

    Comment number 44.

    Paul, I'm a little confused by your penultimate paragraph. I certainly don't deny that the UK is in a terrible mess but you seem to be implying some sort of British request to join the euro based on impending economic collapse. Well, it could happen but think of the consequences

    That would mean that they'd have to bail us out too...and that really would be curtains for the Euro.

  • rate this

    Comment number 43.

    Over? Really?
    Another hundred £billion here or there and we will soon be talking serious money. Except that it doesn't actually exist. The PIGS are to be bailed out by virtual money to which they are contributing.

    I haven't laughed so much since the last time I heard the BBC was impartial.

  • rate this

    Comment number 42.

    14. BluesBerry
    a Financial Transaction Tax(FTT) would provide an audit trail (forensic evidence) for dubious transactions needing scrutiny
    That's the main reason the UK & US don't want FTT. Might end up highlighting money flows that end up in party coffers!

    As for the main article, the fat lady's not ready to sing yet!

  • rate this

    Comment number 41.

    So the technocrats kick the can further down the road... doing anything they can to avoid looking at the bigger problem:-

    The elephant in the room is the EURO - it hasn't gone away, the basic problems remain, there is no growth in the Eurozone and the massive debt of Spain and Italy is not going to 'go away'.

    Fiddling whilst Rome burns.

  • rate this

    Comment number 40.

    Athame57 there is another solution but that would be to hard for the euro people to take.
    the solution is to devalue the euro so the European economies be competitive again.

  • rate this

    Comment number 39.

    I'm starting to get Euro summit fatigue. Oh when oh when will they do the thing that needs to be done and dismantle the whole ill conceived plot that this artificial currency is?

  • rate this

    Comment number 38.

    How many times do you defibrillate a corpse before you admit it's dead? For once, someone at the BBC should do some real reporting not just rehashing PR. The implied threat is, out of the EU, 40% of UK trade vanishes. But a trade deficit means it's false scaremongering. The EU can't afford to lose the UK. Also global growth is outside the EU (BRICS). Be that person Paul, do some real journalism.

  • rate this

    Comment number 37.

    any person who believes the euro crisis is over should be drug and alcohol tested since they are one some very strong drugs.


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