Chechnya presents a formidable challenge to the media outlets operating there and journalists attempting to cover events on the ground.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) lists President Kadyrov as one of its "Predators of Press Freedom". "Self-censorship reigns within the traumatised and intimidated media, reinforced by a climate of complete impunity," RSF said, following a 2011 fact-finding visit.
Television is the most popular source for news and entertainment and almost every household has a TV set. Russian stations are widely available. Grozny TV broadcasts under the umbrella of ChGTRK, which is run by the Chechen authorities.
A handful of local radio stations competes with local relays of Russian private and state-owned networks. Newspaper print runs are small and distribution is patchy.
Advertising revenue is scant and media outlets are wholly reliant on state subsidies or powerful sponsors.
Separatist and jihadist websites spread a different view of events. They include Chechenpress, operated by the internationally unrecognised government in exile.
President Kadyrov blogs via the Russian LiveJournal platform. Local bloggers appear to avoid criticism of the local administration. More than 200,000 Chechens use Russian social media platforms Odnoklassniki and Vkontakte.
- Vesti Respubliki - Chechen government newspaper, in Russian
- Daymokhk - Chechen government newspaper, in Chechen
- Groznenskiy Rabochiy - private weekly
- Stolitsa Plyus - Grozny local government bi-weekly
- ChGTRK Grozny TV - run by Chechen authorities, terrestrial and via satellite
- GTRK Vaynakh TV - regional outlet of Russia's state-run VGTRK
- ChGTRK Radio Groznyy
- GTRK Radio Vaynakh