United Kingdom country profile
- 7 January 2016
- From the section Europe
The United Kingdom is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It has a long history as a major player in international affairs and fulfils an important role in the EU, UN and Nato.
The twentieth century saw Britain having to redefine its place in the world. At the beginning of the century, it commanded a world-wide empire as the foremost global power.
Two world wars and the end of empire diminished its role, but the UK remains an economic and military power, with considerable political and cultural influence around the world.
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Population 62.8 million
Area 242,514 sq km (93,638 sq miles)
Major language English
Major religion Christianity
Life expectancy 78 years (men), 82 years (women)
Currency pound sterling
Head of state: Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1952 upon the death of her father, George VI.
In September 2015, she became Britain's longest-reigning monarch, surpassing the record of her great-great grandmother, Queen Victoria.
She is also head of state of 16 independent countries including Canada and Australia.
As a constitutional monarch, her role in the legislative process is largely ceremonial.
Prime minister: David Cameron
David Cameron became prime minister at the head of a coalition government in May 2010, returning his centre-right Conservative Party to power after 13 years of rule by the centre-left Labour Party.
The Conservatives went on to win a surprise outright victory in the May 2015 general election, allowing Mr Cameron to form the first majority Conservative government since 1992.
Born the son of a wealthy stockbroker in 1966 in London, David Cameron was educated at Eton College - Britain's top private school - and Oxford University. Aged 43 on coming to power, he was the youngest prime minister since 1812.
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The UK has a strong tradition of public service broadcasting and an international reputation for creative programme-making.
The fledgling BBC began daily radio broadcasts in 1922 and quickly came to play a pivotal role in national life. The Empire Service - the forerunner of the BBC World Service - established a reputation worldwide. The BBC is funded by a licence fee, which all households with a TV set must pay.
Commercial TV began in 1955 with the launch of ITV, while commercial radio arrived in the 1970s. Hundreds of privately-owned radio and TV stations now compete with the BBC for listeners and viewers.
There are numerous national and local papers, reflecting the full spectrum of news and opinion. In recent years, printed newspaper circulations have been sliding while online readership has surged.
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Some key dates in British history:
1914 - Outbreak of World War I. UK enters hostilities against Germany.
1918 - War ends in November with armistice. The number of UK war dead runs to several hundred thousand.
1921 - UK agrees to the foundation of the Irish Free State. Northern Ireland remains part of the UK.
1924 - First UK government led by the Labour party under Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald.
1939 - Germany invades Poland. UK declares war on Germany.
1940 - Winston Churchill becomes prime minister.
1944 - Allied troops invade France from Britain on D-Day (6th June) and begin to fight their way towards Germany.
1945 - Germany surrenders. Labour leader Clement Atlee is elected prime minister to replace Winston Churchill. The new Labour government introduces the welfare state.
1945 - The UK becomes a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
1947 - The former colony India wins independence.
1948 - National Health Service is established.
1949 - The UK becomes a founder member of Nato.
1953 - Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
1956 - UK intervenes in Suez Canal Zone, but withdraws under pressure from the US.
1960s - Decolonisation of former British-controlled territories gathers pace.
1969 - British troops sent to quell unrest in Northern Ireland.
1973 - The UK joins the European Economic Community.
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