Television dominates the media scene; many outlets are privately-owned.
Commercial networks, particularly Inter TV and 1+1, attract the biggest share of the audience. The FM band in Kiev is home to more than 20 radio stations.
Many newspapers have Ukrainian and Russian-language editions. Several mass-market tabloids publish only in Russian.
Despite an expanding advertising market, many media outlets rely on the support of wealthy sponsors.
Ahead of parliamentary elections in 2012, watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF) said independent media were facing "harassment, including constant intimidation, raids and prosecutions".
RSF cited the case of pro-opposition TVi, which lost its terrestrial broadcasting frequencies in 2010 and has faced pressure from tax officials.
There were 15.3 million internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats). Access is unrestricted, says Freedom House. The web is a popular news source, with more than a dozen leading sites - neutral, pro-opposition and pro-government.
- Fakty i Kommentarii - mass-circulation daily
- Silski Visti - daily, popular among rural readership
- Vecherniye Vesti - mass-circulation daily
- Segodnya - mass-circulation daily
- Kyiv Post - English-language weekly
- Den - daily, English-language pages
- Ukrayina Moloda - daily
- Zerkalo Nedeli - political weekly, English-language pages
- Holos Ukrayiny - parliamentary newspaper
- Ukrayinska Pravda - online news
- National TV Company of Ukraine - state-run, operates UT1, UT2, UT3 networks
- Inter TV - national, commercial
- 1+1 - national, commercial
- STB - commercial
- Novy Kanal - commercial
- ICTV - commercial
- 5 Kanal - commercial, news-based
- National Radio Company of Ukraine - state-run, operates three networks and external service
- Russkoye Radio - commercial
- Europa Plus - commercial
- Hit FM - commercial
- Nashe Radio - commercial
- Era FM - commercial, news-based