A chronology of key events:
1918 - End of the Hapsburg empire.
Vienna bears many traces of its imperial past
- 1st century BC: Romans take over celtic settlement
- 1276: Start of Hapsburg rule
- Capital of Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918
1919 - Treaty of St Germain defines Austria's boundaries.
1920 - New constitution creates Republic of Austria.
1932 - Engelbert Dollfuss, a Christian Socialist, becomes chancellor.
1934 - Government crushes Socialist uprising, backed by the army and the Heimwehr (Home Defence Force). All political parties abolished except the Fatherland Front.
1934 April - Chancellor Dollfuss dismisses parliament.
1934 July - Imprisonment of Nazi conspirators leads to attempted Nazi coup. Dollfuss assassinated, succeeded by Kurt von Schuschnigg.Anschluss
1936 - Austria acknowledges itself "a German state".
1938 - The Anschluss (union): Austria incorporated into Germany by Hitler. Schuschnigg imprisoned. Austria now called the Ostmark (Eastern March).
World War II - Austria's armed forces, under German control, used on Eastern Front.
1945 - Soviet troops liberate Vienna. Austria occupied by Soviet, British, US and French forces.
Elections result in People's Party and Socialist Party coalition; Karl Renner elected president, Leopold Figl becomes chancellor.
1946-47 - Denazification laws passed. Reconstruction begins.Neutrality
1949 - Former Nazis allowed to participate in general election.
1955 - Treaty signed by UK, France, US and USSR establishes an independent but neutral Austria - a convenient buffer between the West and the Soviet bloc. Austria joins the United Nations.
1970 - Government formed under Chancellor Bruno Kreisky who dominates political scene for more than a decade.
1983 - Socialists and the Freedom Party form a coalition government under Fred Sinowatz.
1986 - Ex-UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim elected president, despite controversy over role in German army in World War II.
Franz Vranitzky replaces Sinowatz as federal chancellor.Rise of the right
1992 - Thomas Klestil, former ambassador to the US, replaces Waldheim as president.
Kurt Waldheim was at the centre of a storm over his wartime record in a Nazi militia
- Born - 1918
- UN Secretary-General - 1972-1982
- Austrian president - 1986-1992
- Died - June 2007
1995 - Austria joins EU. Coalition collapses over budget disagreements and strict convergence criteria for European monetary union.
1996 - Social Democrats form new coalition with People's Party.
1997 - Vranitzky resigns as chancellor and leader of Social Democrats. Finance Minister Viktor Klima takes over both positions.
1998 - Klestil re-elected president.
1999 October - Far-right Freedom Party led by Joerg Haider wins 27% of vote in national elections, equal second with centre right People's Party. Social Democrats remain largest party.
2000 January - Coalition talks between Social Democrats and People's Party break down. People's Party opens talks with Freedom Party.Sanctions
2000 February/March - International outcry as Freedom Party enters government for first time following protracted coalition talks between main parties.
People's Party head Wolfgang Schuessel becomes chancellor with Susanne Riess-Passer of the Freedom Party as his deputy. EU imposes diplomatic sanctions.
Haider hands over as Freedom Party leader to Riess-Passer, seen as less extreme.
2000 August - State-owned companies agree to pay $65m into compensation fund for survivors of Holocaust.
2000 September - EU ends seven months of diplomatic isolation after report concludes that it is counterproductive.
2000 October - Austrian environmentalists blockade border with Czech Republic in protest against the launch of a new Czech nuclear power station at Temelin.Compensation
2001 January - Deal signed on compensating Jews whose assets were seized by Nazis. Government and companies to pay $360m into settlement fund.
2001 November - Chancellor Schuessel and Czech government move to settle dispute over Temelin nuclear power plant by agreeing tough measures to improve safety and monitor impact on environment.
Right-wing party leader won notoriety for comments on Nazi past
2002 August - Devastating floods as Danube bursts banks following torrential rain.
2002 - September - Coalition collapses. Vice Chancellor and Freedom Party leader Riess-Passer and two Freedom Party ministers resign in row with Joerg Haider, widely seen as part of power struggle within party.
2002 November - Schuessel's People's Party makes sweeping gains in general election, largely at expense of far-right Freedom Party. Coalition talks start.
2003 February - Coalition talks with Social Democrats and Greens fail; People's Party again agrees to form government with Freedom Party.
2003 May - Pension reform plans spark first nationwide strike action in several decades.
2003 October - Package of asylum laws introduced, widely seen as among the most restrictive in Europe.
2004 April - Heinz Fischer elected president.
2005 April - Freedom Party splits as Joerg Haider announces he is leaving to set up Alliance for the Future of Austria.
2005 May - Parliament ratifies the EU constitution.
2005 August - Floods cause devastation as the Danube river bursts its banks.
2006 February - A Vienna court finds British historian David Irving guilty of Holocaust denial and sentences him to three years in prison. He is released in December 2006. The case sparks a national debate about the denial legislation.
2006 April - Rising water levels in the Danube again cause severe flooding.
2006 October - The Social Democrats led by Alfred Gusenbauer narrowly defeat the ruling conservative People's Party in elections. After weeks of bargaining, the two parties agree on a coalition. The government is inaugurated in January 2007.
Memorial commemorates Austrian Jews killed in Holocaust
2007 September - Pope Benedict XVI makes 'pilgrimage' to Austria where he had spent time in his youth.National soul-searching
2008 April - National outrage and soul-searching at case of Josef Fritzl, who imprisoned his daughter in a cellar for 24 years and fathered children with her. Tougher law on sexual abuse planned.
2008 July - The centre-right People's Party withdraws from grand coalition with Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer's Social Democrats, forcing a snap general election.
2008 September - The Social Democrats again emerge as largest party in the general election, but both it and the People's Party suffer heavy losses while resurgent far-right parties take 29%.
2008 October - The leader of the far-right Alliance for the Future of Austria, Joerg Haider, is killed in a car crash.
2008 December - New coalition government made up of the centre-left Social Democrats (SPO) and the conservative People's Party is sworn in, two months after snap elections. SPO leader Werner Faymann becomes chancellor.
2010 April - President Fischer is re-elected.
2010 October - Far-right Freedom Party wins 26% of vote in municipal elections in Vienna, putting it in second place to Social Democrats.
2011 July - Otto von Habsburg - eldest son of the last Austrian emperor - is buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna amid much of the pomp associated with the days of the empire.
2013 January - Referendum. Austrians vote to keep compulsory military service.
2013 June - Austria withdraws troops from the Golan Heights after nearly 40 years of monitoring a UN buffer zone between Israel and Syria, as violence from Syria's civil war spreads.
2013 September - Parliamentary elections. The governing coalition parties win enough votes to form a new government.