WWII Arctic convoy 'was absolute hell'
31 August 2011 Last updated at 00:07 BST
Commemorations are taking place in Russia to mark the 70th anniversary of the first Arctic convoy arriving in the Soviet Union.
Between 1941 and 1945, Britain helped transport more than four million tonnes of supplies to the USSR to help the Soviet war effort.
A group of British war veterans is taking part in the celebrations in the northern Russian town of Arkhangelsk.
Royal Navy veteran David Edwards Cottrell spoke to BBC News about his memories of the operation.