Italy is rocky shore for Europe's boat people

African migrants arriving in Lampedusa - file pic Lampedusa: A speck of Italian land off North Africa is now a migration hotspot

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LAMPEDUSA, Italy: The half moon hung low in the Mediterranean sky. It was a calm, clear night for the crossing from Tripoli to Lampedusa.

The boat was more like a barge, without cover, not even for the wheelhouse or engine room.

The Africans were quiet, patient, packed in, absorbed in their escape, their knees drawn up in the confined space as they had been for 30 hours at sea.

On board were 299 men and 14 women. Although they did not know it they were on the fifth boat to arrive in Lampedusa in 24 hours - part of a continuing exodus from war-ravaged Libya.

Only snippets of conversation were possible with the migrants. The Italians whisked them away. They wanted them out of sight. The "clandestini" have become ghosts, to be shuttled between reception centres that are now off-limits to the media.

Gaddafi's labourers

The migrants were originally from countries like Nigeria or Ghana. They were Colonel Gaddafi's "Gastarbeiters" - his guest workers. They did the jobs that Libyans chose not to. They learnt Arabic and sent part of their wages home. They worked, but enjoyed few rights.

African migrants arriving in Lampedusa

Why they are leaving now, and in such numbers, is difficult to unravel. Several young men said it was the bombs, the war, the fighting. But another man hinted that he had been put aboard by the Libyan government.

It was also strange that everyone we spoke to denied they had paid any money for the crossing. It is possible that the migrants are now being encouraged to leave Libya, so fulfilling Gaddafi's threat to "unleash an unprecedented wave of illegal immigration" into Europe.

On board there were small children and babies. One pregnant woman had collapsed on the deck. Only fear or coercion would persuade a mother to risk her baby on such a crossing.

On the Italian quayside they drank water from bottles and plastic cups. They sat in long lines, passive, waiting to be put on buses and taken to their first reception centre. Within 48 hours they will be put on ferries and dispersed to other centres in ports like Catania, Cagliari, Livorno - one more step into an unknown world.

Some of the migrants had no idea where they had landed. Lampedusa is a place without significance. One man spread his hands for us and said they were good for work. Another man from Nigeria - using his textbook English - said he had come for "greener pastures".

Their future is unclear. Some clearly are refugees. Some may claim asylum.

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Most likely they will be released onto the streets of Italy to sell fake handbags or work fruit-gathering, another insecure existence on the margins of society. Some will return to sub-Saharan Africa.

France-Italy tensions

This is the second migration wave sparked by the Arab Spring.

In the early months it was Tunisians who made the shorter journey to this speck of rock surrounded by an azure sea. Over 50,000 of them came.

They were economic migrants, seizing the moment, riding a current of freedom. Paris was their destination. They spoke some French and had relatives there. They bubbled with expectation. A new world opening up before them.

In their numbers they shook Europe and challenged its ideals. Italy's Silvio Berlusconi did not want them. His government gave them temporary documents and watched them head for France, as he knew they would. It led to Paris introducing temporary border controls, suspending the free movement of people as guaranteed under the Schengen agreement.

In Paris I met some of the Tunisians who had reached the French capital. They were being fed on some wasteland close to the peripherique, the outer ring road. Graffiti was on the walls. Broken glass on the ground. All of them wanted to return home. This had been no promised land.

There is no welcome mat for migrants. Europe is absorbed with its own survival in a recession that stubbornly persists.

Lampedusa map

We then travelled to Belleville. Some of the Tunisians had been staying in a school. The riot police, the CRS, had ejected them. There was a stand-off but illegal migrants, without papers, sensed it was best to drift away.

Hundreds of Tunisians have already left France. The French government is paying them 300 euros (£266) each to return home and they are leaving in increasing numbers. Many, however, paid more than 1,000 euros to smugglers and are now trapped in France trying to raise funds.

European officials say these migrants are needed. In the long term that may be true, but there are 24 million out of work in Europe.

In many countries a young generation is growing up without work. But they are educated - and educated people tend to shy away from dirty and sometimes dangerous jobs. And many of the migrants are eager to work.

Like millions before them the African boat people travel with hope, but Europe is insecure. European officials talk up the benefits of migration. The voters see it otherwise. At a time of austerity they resent new arrivals and pity is sparse.

But none of this is known back on the Libyan coast. And that is part of the tragedy.

Gavin Hewitt Article written by Gavin Hewitt Gavin Hewitt Europe editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 25.

    GH: They were Colonel Gaddafi's "Gastarbeiters" - his guest workers. Why they are leaving now, and in such numbers, is difficult to unravel. "

    Not at all, Gavin. They've been leaving since you (France and UK) decided to toppple the same Qaddafi who gave them jobs in the first place.

    [not that your attempts to asssassinate him and replace with his long time factotums succeeded]

  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    The expression, "Can't see the wood, for the trees", is used when one is too close to see the overall view. WE all use Google Earth, to view the world now, or streetscapes. We can gain perspective of the "WOOD", but not the people moving through the forest. The people escaping from war in Libya, who were invited there to work, must be protected and cared for by Europe. This is law.

  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    16 Gadfly55
    " Living here we are directly affected by the events Gavin describes " I appreciate that ; but with political/bureaucratic correctness , you are
    " Too Close To The Wood To See The Trees ". I am English and like most British , hate my country being part of the EU , even if I am living far away in sunny Thailand . I am not anti Europe or you living in France . The EU is a cockup .

  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    "European officials say these migrants are needed. In the long term that may be true, but there are 24 million out of work in Europe."

    They are only wanted by the capitalists to continue their slavery at the expense of the European citizens. The illegal immigrats will work for miserly wages and working conditions and undermine the European workers. Send them back to their own countries.

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    EU must accept asylum seekers from war zones, but nobody else and I must say that person from example Eritrea or Afghanistan is not ASYLUM SEEKER because if he is escaping from war zone he will go to Saudi Arabia, Pakistan not in Europe half world away !?

    Question of economic immigrants must be solved inside of EU which will in theory accept immigrants for special jobs which nobody want to work

  • rate this

    Comment number 20.

    18, Immigrant labour is an essential and officially welcomed constituent of the competitive economy. Immigrants do jobs that citizens disdain. Such is the case world-wide where the economy provides sufficient standards of living for most citizens, whether the UK, US, Germany, or Saudi Arabia. The movement of people to improve their lives is an irresistable force, especially when required for work.

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    19. This anti-immigration attitude which you ascribe to the people of Europe has not been substantiated by any evidence other than inference. Europe guarantees free movement of people within its borders, particularly Schengen. Who precisely is defined as an immigrant when national boundaries do not exist effectively? The UK and Ireland operate outside of Schengen, yet millions went there.

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    12 a
    "...the whole of Africa is being raped by US and Europe!..."

    You failed to mention China which is targetting African raw materials in a studiously amoral fashion. Like Darfur, where the Chinese own oil rights.

    gadfly55 - In common with other euro-enthusiasts, you are ignoring the EU population which is anti-immigration - particularly immigration of this kind -Whatever the morality.

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    12 a
    Well said !!! Thanks for that information ; so much for those who think Globalism is for the benefit of impoverished and developing countries .
    The US and EU give with one hand and take back with two . Do I read that investors/bank have cornered the corn maket , to keep the price high ; beyond the reach of many poorer countries ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    14. Huaimek
    Living here we are directly affected by the events Gavin describes, you are not, neither is MAII or others. Enjoy your life where you are, relaxed and friendly. These are not your problems now, let it go. We living here, cannot imagine risking your life in the open sea, especially being forced into an open barge, Hundreds of people have been lost, thousands. This is serious. Sowadicap

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    Now all of you will understand why most of the US population are so much against illegal entry from (mainly) Mexico and other south American countries. I am retired on disability after working almost every day for the last 45yrs. Money still comes out of my monthly retirement checks to support these illegals and I get no raises! They are better off than I am.

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    Gadfly55 may criticize me for spouting off on the EU troubles from faraway Thailand . I came here to live quietly in retirement with a lovely 24yrs younger lady and granny too . Thailand seems a wonderful peaceful backwater from the troubles of the world . I have no doubt that all reader/participants here recieve world news from the same sources , newspapers , television and the internet .

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    Humanity is an utter disgrace ; this world is not worth saving or the people on Planet Earth . Give me animals any day ! We humans have created this rotten bankrupt USA and EU . When ill conceived plans go wrong , we deserve all the misfortunes we may have to suffer . When Italy and Spain have to be bailed out and there's not enough money , then what? Default all round ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    All this mess, the whole of Africa is being raped by US and Europe! I read in a blog few days back that one of the US Co. in a western African country is giving a 1% royalty on Gold mined there. Imagine 1%!!!! If western world believes in free trade and equality and laisez fair open their markets for African agricultural produce. I guarantee that the corn will cost a fraction of US market rate!!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    There is a distinction between economic migrants and refugees from a war zone, that is blurred in this article. These are two different sets of circumstances. In this day and age, it is not beyond the competence of authority to manage the influx of persons residing in North Africa, especially as they are dependant upon state assistance. As stability returns, so will most of the people arriving.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    there are currently some 45 million people world wide want to move from their current situation to a better environment. Those who advocate the acceptance of illegal immigration should ponder on this.
    There are some problems that can simply not be solved. I noted with interest the arrival of the Tunisians on Lampedusa, all young able men who should be back in Tunisia building their nation..

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    1. The obligations of Europe under law to care for the refugees from conflict will be implemented fully. Co-ordination is required, and will be achieved reasonably, without resort to arbitrary measures as a solution. People are being used as pawns by Gaddafi, according to this account. The UN mandate to protect the people from massacre in Libya will require Europe to provide care at this time.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    However many arrive in Europe, at this time because of unintended consequences of rebellion in Libya, there must be a co-ordinated response for the humane care of these refugees from conflict. Castro did the same in expelling 125,000 in 1980 ( Whatever the costs, they are insignificant by comparison with military costs. People first. Solutions later.

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    Gavin - come on - its all falling apart isn't it? Why no analysis of Italy - that little neo-fascist state of whim worship! Are you engaged in evasion?

    The domino's are falling - Greece ain't finished with their revolution, Spain is on the brink of civil war again - and the UK is dead as a dodo - What of Portugal? all quite....ha

    Do you job, report what is happening in front of your eyes!

  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    "But none of this is known back on the Libyan coast. And that is part of the tragedy." -GH

    Hindsight being better than foresight, they had been oppressed, then saw a European beacon of opportunity, and there they went, but that was before their next discovery.


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