Vietnam country profile

  • 23 September 2015
  • From the section Asia
Map of Vietnam

Vietnam, a one-party Communist state, has one of south-east Asia's fastest-growing economies and has set its sights on becoming a developed nation by 2020.

It became a unified country once more in 1975 when the armed forces of the Communist north seized the south.

This followed three decades of bitter wars, in which the Communists fought first against the colonial power France, then against South Vietnam and its US backers. In its latter stages, the conflict held the attention of the world.

The US joined the hostilities in order to stem the "domino effect" of successive countries falling to Communism.


Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Capital: Hanoi

  • Population 89.7 million

  • Area 329,247 sq km (127,123 sq miles)

  • Major language Vietnamese

  • Major religion Buddhism

  • Life expectancy 73 years (men), 77 years (women)

  • Currency dong

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President: Truong Tan Sang

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Truong Tan Sang was elected to the largely ceremonial post of president in July 2011.

Secretary-general of the Communist Party: Nguyen Phu Trong

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The Communist Party holds the real power in Vietnam. It appointed Nguyen Phu Trong as its secretary-general in January 2011, replacing Nong Duc Manh, who retired after 10 years in the post.

He took over as Vietnam faced mounting economic problems, including rising inflation, a growing trade deficit and a weakening currency.

Born in 1944, he also previously served the Communist Party's chief political theorist.

Nguyen Phu Trong is seen as a conservative.

Prime minister: Nguyen Tan Dung

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Nguyen Tan Dung was elected to the post by parliament in 2006 and re-elected in July 2011, at the recommendation of the Communist Party.

The former Viet Cong communist guerrilla and one-time central bank governor is considered a reformer, but Vietnam - one of the fastest growing countries in Asia - has struggled with economic woes during his tenure.


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The Communist Party has a strong grip on the media.

Media outlets and journalists risk sanctions for broaching sensitive topics and for criticising the government. But some press titles and online outlets do report on corruption in official circles.

There were 41 million internet users by the end of 2013, out of a population of 94 million (


1859-83 - France slowly colonises Indochina.

1940 - Japan takes control of Indochina.

1945 - Ho Chi Minh proclaims independence and establishes the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

1946 - French seek to regain control. Anti-French resistance war - or the First Indochina War - spreads across country.

1954 - Vietnam is partitioned between North and South. Conflict between the two rival states rages for the next two decades, in what is known as the Vietnam War or the Second Indochina War. The US is heavily involved in support of the South.

1975 - Southern cities fall one by one until communist forces seize Saigon.

1976 - Vietnam is reunified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Hundreds of thousands flee abroad, including many "boat people".

1979 - Vietnam invades Cambodia and ousts the Khmer Rouge regime of Pol Pot.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Ho Chi Minh (pictured in 1951) led the resistance against French colonial rule in the First Indochina War

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