Laos country profile

  • 14 October 2015
  • From the section Asia
Map of Laos

Landlocked Laos is one of the world's few remaining communist states and one of East Asia's poorest.

A French colony until the 1953, the power struggle which ensued between royalists and the communist group Pathet Lao also saw the country caught up in the Vietnam War. Communist forces overthrew the monarchy in 1975, heralding years of isolation.

After the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Laos began opening up to the world. But despite economic reforms, the country remains poor and heavily dependent on foreign aid.

Most Laotians live in rural areas, with around 80% working in agriculture mostly growing rice. The state has made no secret of its huge hydropower ambitions and its desire to become the "battery" of Southeast Asia.

The government anticipates that by 2025 hydropower will become the country's biggest source of revenue. But neighbours Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia have raised concerns about the environmental impact of its dam building projects along the Mekong River


Lao People's Democratic Republic

Capital: Vientiane

  • Population 6.4 million

  • Area 236,800 sq km (91,400 sq miles)

  • Major languages Lao, French

  • Major religion Buddhism

  • Life expectancy 66 years (men), 69 years (women)

  • Currency kip

Getty Images


Image copyright Getty Images

President: Choummaly Sayasone

Choummaly Sayasone has served as president and head of the ruling communist Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) since 2006.

He was reappointed for a second term by the National Assembly in June 2011. He was the only candidate nominated by the powerful politburo of the LPRP.

Mr Sayasone is former vice-president and defence minister. He is seen as a staunch ally of his predecessor, Khamtay Siphandon, who served three terms and oversaw the country's entry into the Association of Southeast Asians Nations (ASEAN).


Image copyright Getty Images

The communist state exerts tight control over the media, owning all newspapers and broadcast media.

Estimates suggest that there are over half a million internet users and the number is rising.

In 2014, the government introduced strict new internet controls, making online criticism of its policies or the ruling party a criminal offence. The new legislation also demands that web users register with their real names when setting up social media accounts.


Image caption The That Luang Buddhist stupa in the capital Vientiane

Some key dates in the history of Laos:

1893 - Laos becomes a French protectorate until 1945, when it is briefly occupied by the Japanese towards the end of the Second World War.

1946 - French rule over Laos is resumed.

1950 - Laos is granted semi-autonomy as an associated state within the French Union.

1953 - Independence restored after the end of French rule. Civil war breaks between royalists and the communist group, the Pathet Lao.

1975 - Pathet Lao - renamed the Lao People's Front - replaces the monarchy with a communist government.

1986 - Laos introduces market reforms.

1997 - Laos becomes member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

2011 - New stock market opens in Vientiane.

2013 - Becomes a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

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