Television is Indonesia's dominant medium. Major national commercial networks compete with public Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI). Some provinces operate their own stations.
The radio dial is crowded, with scores of stations on the air in Jakarta alone. Private stations carry their own news, but cannot relay live news from international broadcasters.
Reporters Without Borders praises Indonesia's media pluralism but says the government has failed to guarantee complete freedom for the media. It says reporting on environmental matters can be especially dangerous.
There were 55 million internet users by the end of 2011 (InternetWorldStats). Facebook is a hugely popular web destination. A survey has described Indonesians as the world's most active users of Twitter. A range of opinion formers are active on social media.
Surfers are leapfrogging usual forms of access - including PCs - in favour of mobile devices.
A 2011 study by Yahoo found that the internet had become the second-largest media platform after TV in major cities, surpassing newspapers and radio.
There has been a fierce debate over government proposals to filter sites deemed to carry pornographic or blasphemous content.
- The Jakarta Post - English-language daily
- The Jakarta Globe - English-language daily
- Kompas - daily
- Pos Kota - daily
- Indo Pos - daily
- Media Indonesia - daily
- Suara Kary - daily
- Republika - daily
- Sinar Harapan - daily
- Bisnis Indonesia - daily
- Tempo - weekly, English-language pages
- Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) - public, operates six national networks, regional and local stations, external service Voice of Indonesia
- Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) - public, operates two networks
- Surya Citra Televisi Indonesia (SCTV) - private
- Rajawali Citra TV Indonesia (RCTI) - private
- Indosiar - private
- MNCTV - private
- Antara - government-owned news agency, English-language pages