Biswas: Some good reads for the week

 
A man begging in Delhi, India India 'breathes an oppressive atmosphere of social inequality'

Why don't Indians talk about inequality? Are Indian politicians really interested in reform? Why is the newspaper business in India thriving?

Beginning this week, I will be regularly flagging up some good reads on India from around the world. I am not endorsing any views contained in the pieces.

INDIANS AND INEQUALITY

Why do people in one of the world's most unequal nations avoid talking about inequality?

In a scholarly, must-read essay in The Caravan magazine, Pratap Bhanu Mehta, who heads the Delhi-based Centre For Policy Research, writes that India still "breathes an oppressive atmosphere of social inequality" despite significant reduction of poverty.

But a "deep and pervasive culture of avoidance" hobbles clear thinking about inequality. "Everybody hopes the system will change, but absolves themselves of the responsibility for bringing about that change," writes Mr Mehta, who has taught at Harvard. The scale of silence is unusual, he writes, in a society which is richly plural and argumentative and has democratic politics.

Mr Mehta argues that social distance - caused by divisions of caste and class - reduces trust, makes collective action difficult and perpetuates inequality. Inequality also produces a society which suffers from low self-esteem.

India typically deals with inequality by giving out handouts and pushing affirmative action. But, as Mr Mehta points out, segregated social spaces and caste hierarchies ensure that inequality is alive and well. "The biggest failure of Indian political imagination," he writes, is "while promising emancipation, it also made caste categories inescapable."

ARE INDIAN POLITICIANS REFORMS SHY?

Yes, suspects Adam Roberts writing in the Economist magazine. The magazine has published another special report on India, which touches upon its many challenges - messy politics, an austere foreign policy, lack of skill building, the state of cities.

Echoing the sentiments of many Indians, Mr Roberts writes India has always pushed economic reforms when faced with a crisis. Even small reforms can kick up a political storm, as the recent decision to allow global supermarket chains showed.

Mr Roberts writes that politicians, rattled by the defeat of the "most recent reforming government" led by the BJP in the 2004 general elections, "show no wish to be bolder".

Also, the report says, the "old broad consensus in favour of reform has broken". (It is debatable, however, whether India has been able to forge a consensus in favour of reforms at all.) Crony capitalism and "robber baron politicians" have helped matters.

So, Mr Roberts believes, gloomsters may be half right. "India's politicians are not, by instinct, reformers. They act when pushed."

INSIDE THE 'WORLD'S LARGEST ENGLISH NEWSPAPER'

A man reading Times of India newspaper in Mumbai India is a thriving market for newspapers

"We are not in the newspaper business, we are in the advertising business," Vineet Jain, one of the owners of The Times Of India, reportedly the world's biggest selling English language daily, tells Ken Auletta of The New Yorker magazine. "If 90% of your revenues come from advertising, you're in the advertising business."

Mr Auletta's innovatively titled Citizens Jain, is a rare and incisive look into India's largest media company, which is fuelled by a thriving newspaper business.

Mr Jain's company - which he runs with his brother, Samir - owns a dozen newspapers (The Times of India alone reports a daily circulation of more than three million), 18 magazines, two satellite news channels, a movie channel, a Bollywood lifestyle channel, a radio network and a raft of internet sites. It also mops up half of all English language print advertising in the country. The company earns $1.5bn in revenues and is debt free.

Mr Auletta writes that the success of The Times of India, a "bulletin board rather than an agenda-setter", is a "product of their content and the unorthodox philosophy behind it" - gossipy celebrity-driven city supplements, advertorials, "private treaties" in which the company accepts adverts in exchange for equity (it has a stake in more than 350 companies), and breaking down the walls between the newsroom and sales departments.

Critics of the paper tell Mr Auletta that commercial success has not led to top quality journalism. "The Times has corrupted the entire face of Indian journalism, including television," a senior-Mumbai based editor tells him. Others say the paper covers less international news, arts and many of India's pressing problems.

At the heart of the rise of TOI - as the paper is popularly called - is the fact that India remains the most thriving market for newspapers in the world, writes Mr Auletta.

Fewer than 10% of Indians have access to the internet, though this is posed to grow exponentially in the years ahead. Interestingly, Vineet Jain believes newspapers, powered by the growing regional language press, will continue to grow in India "for another 15 years". Others, of course, believe the digital threat is more imminent.

THE IMPORTANCE OF POLITICS

Anti-corruption protest in India 'Politics is essential to bring about fundamental change'

There's no substitute to politics for bringing about "fundamental systemic changes" in India, writes Yogendra Yadav in a finely argued piece in this week's Outlook magazine.

Mr Yadav, one of India's finest social scientists, is also an active member of a proposed new party which is being set up to combat corruption in India.

Many have questioned why the anti-corruption campaigners, led by Arvind Kejriwal, have decided to enter politics, a move which even their mentor Anna Hazare has not supported. Popular movements don't usually make for successful political parties, critics say.

Mr Yadav differs. "If politics is about shifting the balance of power in a society, then not resorting to politics is not an option," he writes.

He agrees that some of India's most progressive initiatives - freedom of information, right to education, the rural jobs-for-work scheme - have been the result of strong mass movements. But this route, he says, is "not viable if the goal is to bring about a fundamental change - one that might threaten the interests of the political class".

"Movement politics is necessary but insufficient; in itself it can only be the second-best option," Mr Yadav writes. "For those who dare to think big and press for fundamental systemic changes, there is no substitute for a political instrument of their own." It is a sobering thought in India's strongly anti-political climate today.

 
Soutik Biswas, Delhi correspondent Article written by Soutik Biswas Soutik Biswas Delhi correspondent

Why India's sanitation crisis kills women

The gruesome rape and hanging of two teenage girls in the populous Uttar Pradesh state again proves how women have become the biggest victims of India's sanitation crisis.

Read full article

Comments

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  • rate this
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    Comment number 24.

    @Sautik:We would love to read an article from you about the state of the "reservation" system in India.Do you think it is the right way to go in the future?I think analysts like you will have to play a bigger role in reporting/analysing the pros and cons of such a system as the politicians in India are too busy protecting their vote banks.Someone has to start speaking without fear of losing votes.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 23.

    #21: Agreed. Declining popularity of national parties has made them dependent on regional & communal (muslim & dalit) parties. To retain power fear is promoted, division perpetuated - while keeping these vote banks poor & dependent. Quota has not narrowed poverty significantly, & these groups are beginning to realise that they are merely pawns in a much larger un-winnable game. Indians must unite.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 22.

    ToI quotes (10Oct12) the PM:
    (i) "Mindless atmosphere of negativity ... over the issue of corruption can do us no good." - should citizens keep silent?
    (ii) "the supplier of the bribe goes scot-free" - punish citizens for not being able to resist paying bribes under coercion/worse?
    (iii) "protect honest public servants more effectively” - surely not another Corruption Protection Bill on its way?

  • rate this
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    Comment number 21.

    Inequality exists all over the world but it is most prevalent in India through the caste system. Although people may argue there is no more discrimination based on caste, but we all know this is merely a cover on the outside to hide the heart of the matter. Caste system and discrimination that results from it will never allow India to unify and exploit its full potential as a world power.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 20.

    #16 & #17:

    Sorry for the typo in my post #19.

    I should have said #17, not #16.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 19.

    #16: SOME readers' frustration at what ToI is doing to India's 4th pillar of democracy is there for all to see.
    "We are not in the newspaper business, we are in the advertising business " (Vineet Jain, an owner of ToI). Critics of ToI told The New Yorker "The Times has corrupted the entire face of Indian journalism, including television" - see BBC article above.
    A justified reaction by citizens??

  • rate this
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    Comment number 18.

    #15 & #16 are right abt 'block votes' and and 'vote buying'. Money from mega corruption wins elections & Govt policy does the rest. Half the population barely subsist & defecate in the open; largely illiterate their fears of being exploited on grounds of caste/religion are both fermented & perpetuated, while pathetic freebies are handed out. Merciless loot by highly educated politicians must end.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 17.

    I want to comment on the quality of Times of India, the Delhi based nation newspaper. I request your readers to open the electronic edition of this daily and read readers’ opinions column and judge the standard of the readers and the editors who allow these sorts of comments get published in public forum. I have never read such vulgar, highly objectionable comments in any other newspapers.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 16.

    Corruption of businessmen in 2G ,Coal Scam,Iron ore mining scams in Bellary,Goa ,Irrigation Scam in Maharashtra and DLF- Vadra Scam are corruption ,but rural,urban and poor voter for elections is least bothered as this is not relevant to earn daily livelihood elected politicians bold enough to loot as much as they can.Caste,religion,money power,muscle,freebies& local issues decide their
    results

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 15.

    We should first get rid of the "reservation" system to get rid of inequality (& consequential abuse of law). Instead of clearing out inequality, it crystalizes and perpetuates it. Unfortunately, there is no political will to do this lest their vote banks get affected. The government still continues to dish out additional reservations to keep themselves in power, but are causing the society to rot.

  • rate this
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    Comment number 14.

    Maybe the people of India should stop romantizing about the Gandhi family as heroes and heroines - hasn't this family ruined India already!!!!!

  • rate this
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    Comment number 13.

    I've always thought of India as being a more scenic version of america without the obesity problem. Starting to sound more and more as if i was right

  • rate this
    -2

    Comment number 12.

    From a westerner’s perspective, Indian corruption is in our best interest, long may it continue.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 11.

    About half the population of India eke out a subsistence living, while new plunders of tens of billions of dollars each are reported almost on a quarterly basis. Indian corruption is systemic, deep rooted and endemic. Steadily a nexus between the legislature/executive/judiciary/big business has built up and democracy subverted.
    Should the West continue to look away to protect its trade interests?

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 10.

    Any citizen of the world who believes in freedom and democracy must support the efforts of these few, selfless, dedicated Indians, who may literally be putting their lives at risk, in their efforts to kick start this long and impossibly hard process of change.
    The efforts of the ex-CJI and the current CAG are an inspiration to all Indians, who really care about the future of ALL Indians.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 9.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that there is very little to choose between the political parties, or between most elected representatives! Recently Govt Ministers were falling over themselves to defend a close family member of their Party Chairperson, even as they insisted he was a non-political private citizen!
    IF India is to remain a democracy citizens must have a choice of honest candidates!

  • rate this
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    Comment number 8.

    Best read: "Democracy Indian Style: Subhas Chandra Bose & Creation of India's Political Culture" by Anton Pelinka. Chapters that explain Bose's life & career + chapters that describe/analyze Indian political system. Analyzation: weaknesses of the party system, specifics of Indian elections. Hard to explain in limited space, well worth the read to understand why India appears to be standing still.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 7.

    Many a 'mango people' hold their heads in shame (because they have taken a bribe) but carry on selling their votes to make ends meet, or join political rallies for Rs 150/day and mid-day meal. Meanwhile the privileged middle class rake in increasingly larger bribes. But the real plunderers are big business families, political dynasties and top bureaucrats - with children at top univs in the West.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 6.

    A most privileged member of Indian society has termed India a 'banana republic' (a country run for the private gain of an élite group), and judging by revelations in the past few years he is not wrong!
    Those who accuse the 'mango people' (a literal translation of 'aam aadmi' = common man) of also taking bribes, forget scale & circumstances - 100s v 100s of millions; necessity vs pure greed!.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 5.

    I've read many books on India including "Burden of Democracy" by Pratap Bhanu Mehta. & "India after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy" by Ramachandra Guha. India's existence, says Guha, is an anomaly - cultural heterogeneity & poverty do not normally make a cohesive democracy; instead it makes corruption when one Indian does not see the face of another Indian in transactions.

 

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