North Korea 'to restart Yongbyon nuclear reactor'


Williamson: "Most people believe North Korea does not want all-out war"

North Korea says it will restart all facilities at its main Yongbyon nuclear complex, including a reactor mothballed in 2007.

In a statement, it said the move would bolster North Korea's nuclear forces "in quality and quantity".

The move is the latest in a series of measures by Pyongyang in the wake of its third nuclear test in February.

It has been angered by the resultant UN sanctions and joint US-South Korea annual military drills.

In recent weeks the communist state has issued a series of threats against both South Korean and US targets, to which the US has responded with high-profile movements of advanced aircraft and warships around the Korean peninsula.


North Korea's announcement effectively undoes international efforts to constrain its nuclear programme. But restarting the reactor at Yongbyon will take time. Cooling systems have to be re-installed, the reactor fuelled and so on. It could be six months to a year before the reactor is up and running. This will open up a new source of plutonium for North Korea's nuclear weapons programme.

Pyongyang's references to its highly-enriched uranium activities are puzzling experts and are less clear. This provides an alternative basis for a nuclear weapon. But nobody knows how many secret enrichment plants North Korea may have or the level to which they may already be enriching nuclear material.

So in many ways its back to square one in terms of nuclear diplomacy. But six years have passed since 2007 and in the intervening period North Korea's missile capabilities - the means by which it might eventually seek to deliver a nuclear warhead - have improved significantly.

A South Korean foreign ministry spokesman said that if true, the North Korean move would be "highly regrettable".

Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Hong Lei called for restraint from all sides to resolve the "complex and sensitive" situation.

'Adjust and alter'

The reactor at Yongbyon - which was the source for plutonium for North Korea's nuclear weapons programme - was closed in July 2007 as part of a disarmament-for-aid deal.

The cooling tower at the facility was later destroyed, but then the disarmament deal stalled.

Part of the reason the agreement fell apart was because the US did not believe Pyongyang was fully disclosing all of its nuclear facilities - a suspicion later bolstered when North Korea unveiled a uranium enrichment facility at Yongbyon to US scientist Siegfried Hecker in 2010.

While it appeared to be for electricity generation purposes, Mr Hecker said the facility could be readily converted to produce highly-enriched uranium for bombs.

The statement, carried by KCNA news agency, was attributed to a spokesman for the General Department of Atomic Energy.

Yongbyon nuclear complex

  • North Korea's main nuclear facility; thought to have produced the material for 2006 and 2009 nuclear tests
  • Reactor shut down in July 2007 as part of a disarmament-for-aid deal; Cooling tower dismantled in 2008
  • IAEA inspectors banned in April 2009 when North Korea pulled out of disarmament talks
  • Experts believe that, if re-started, reactor could make one bomb's worth of plutonium per year
  • A uranium enrichment facility was revealed in 2010. An American nuclear scientist said centrifuges appeared to be primarily for civilian nuclear power, but could be converted to produce highly enriched uranium bomb fuel
  • Nuclear test based on uranium device would be harder to monitor than plutonium

The department had decided "to adjust and alter the uses of the existing nuclear facilities" including "readjusting and restarting all the nuclear facilities in Nyongbyon [Yongbyon] including uranium enrichment plant and 5MW graphite moderated reactor".

The work would be put into practice without delay, the statement said. It also attributed the move to the need to generate more electricity.

In a November 2010 report following his visit to Yongbyon, Siegfried Hecker said based on what he saw he believed North Korea could "resume all plutonium operations within approximately six months" at Yongbyon if so inclined.

The reactor can produce spent fuel rods that can be made into plutonium - which experts believe North Korea used for its nuclear tests in 2006 and 2009. It is not clear whether plutonium or uranium was used in the February test.

The reference to altering nuclear facilities could suggest that North Korea may begin openly enriching uranium to weapons-grade levels, which would give it a second, faster route to making nuclear weapons, reports the BBC's Lucy Williamson, who is in Seoul.

US warship deployed

Timeline: Korean tensions

  • 12 Dec: North Korea fires three-stage rocket, in move condemned by UN as banned test of long-range missile technology
  • 12 Feb: North Korea conducts an underground nuclear test, its third after tests in 2006 and 2009
  • 11 Mar: US-South Korea annual joint military drills begin
  • 19 Mar: US flies B-52 nuclear-capable bombers over Korean peninsula, following several North Korean threats
  • 27 Mar: North Korea cuts military hotline with South
  • 28 Mar: US flies B-2 stealth bombers over Korean peninsula
  • 30 Mar: North Korea says it is entering a "state of war" with South Korea
  • 2 Apr: North Korea says it is restarting mothballed Yongbyon reactor

In the weeks since the nuclear test, North Korea's rhetoric has escalated - including multiple threats of attacks on US bases in South Korea and Japan, and on South Korean border islands.

But the US, which has in recent days flown B-52 bombers, B-2 stealth planes and F-22 stealth bombers over South Korea in a show of strength, says it is seeing no signs of increased military activity in North Korea.

"Despite the harsh rhetoric we're hearing from Pyongyang, we are not seeing changes to the North Korean military posture, such as large-scale mobilisations and positioning of forces," White House spokesman Jay Carney said.

But he said the US was "monitoring the Korean situation very diligently".

Defence officials told reporters that a US Aegis-class warship capable of defending against missile strikes had also been moved to the south-west coast off South Korea.

This would offer "greater missile defence options should [they] become necessary", an official told Reuters news agency.

Reports also suggest the US is moving a sea-based radar platform called SBX-1 into the western Pacific so that it can monitor North Korea.


More on This Story

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  • rate this

    Comment number 35.

    It is quite reasonable for the North Koreans to want to defend themselves from hostile countries, that have not only invaded it, but still have troops stationed its borders.

  • rate this

    Comment number 34.

    North Korea in my view is essentially the nightmare neighbour on your street. They get angry when you aren't in and 100% quiet by 9pm, they phone the police when your dog just happens to put one paw on their property, they criticise your "unnecessarily vulgar" car choice and have a go at you if your kids accidentally throw something over the garden fence. All show, but no substance to the threat.

  • rate this

    Comment number 33.

    Perhaps a drone or two would solve the problem.

  • rate this

    Comment number 32.

    There were a few loons protesting at the AWE Aldermaston yesterday; perhaps they would have more success in Pyongyang.

  • rate this

    Comment number 31.

    Its hard to protest aganst this move when we are also going to biuld a new reactor and are running several beyond their designed life expectancy.

    Yes, North Korea are not democratic, but it is perfectly possible to argue that we are not either - afterall we have had the same non-elected head of state for 60 years now.

    Live and let live. Global dictator ship of standards is wrong.

  • rate this

    Comment number 30.

    Anyone who takes haircut advice from Joey Essex should not be take seriously!

  • rate this

    Comment number 29.

    Can't help but feel China are pulling the strings. Without China N/Korea could not exist.

  • rate this

    Comment number 28.

    What a hellhole of a planet we live on.

    Nutters running every single government who are hellbent on war and control...

    Beam me up Scotty!

  • rate this

    Comment number 27.

    Spindoctor: "woo Hoo another chance to bash NK and post useless comments that insult the poor sods that live in the hell hole."

    All power is given, not taken. The people of NK may be saps now but who gave power to those in charge? They did. It wasn't taken from them by force (the same applies here. We give our politicians power - if they choose to go to war we've no one to blame but ourselves).

  • rate this

    Comment number 26.

    so let me see if I get this right America can have as much nuclear stuff as it wants but when someone else wants the same we have to stop them ?
    America needs to understand that they don't rule the world anymore and if they keep trying to do so then war maybe the result

  • Comment number 25.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    Sounds to me that this young puppy needs to stop howling and get potty training. Suggest socialising in a dog park for him to realise he's got delusions of adequacy and an introduction to the Rotweiller living next door.

  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    Why on earth do the Chinese sit on their hands while their neighbour goes mad, surely China has an interest in controlling the lunacy next door for if North Korea starts chucking nuclear missiles about the fallout out wont stop at their borders. Apart from South Korea the Chinese have most to lose if the rhetoric turns to action.

  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    Another country provoked by the US and us to an extent react and then gets the squeeze put on it. The US was playing war games off their coast as a direct threat last month, what do they expect? Again our state media (the BBC) will paint this "rogue state" as a threat and again we will attack, take over, & take control by forcing huge debt on the gov and banks, calling it restructuring and aid.

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    Scary potatoes.

  • rate this

    Comment number 20. ronery..

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    I wonder how long it will be before we hear Hague and Cameron use the words "our forces are standing by the assist our US and South Korean allies in whichever way possible"

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    They will do and say everything and anything APART from actually going to war. They are not stupid. They've even started toning their rhetoric down as I knew they would. There will be no war, neither side stands to gain anything by it. You're all witnessing a global edition of eastenders.

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    The North Koreans are very frightened, and when people or countries are very frightened, extremist things can happen: like launching a war which will result in utter disaster for them and others. Why are they frightened? Well, it is obvious that the pressure has been on them for many years from powerful opponents. Even China now grows weary of them, so desperate things become conceivable to them.

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    Ok, I'm giving the DPRK the lost in translation piece of doubt! Meanwhile the US alone has an arsenal on DPRK doorstep that would make Bomber Harris resources of WWII look miniscule. What we're gearing up for here is WMD's being capable of being launched in 45 seconds...And where before did we hear this little GEM from!


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