Pakistani militia guard against Taliban return on Afghan border
30 January 2013 Last updated at 18:39 GMT
Markets in the Bajaur region of Pakistan - which borders Afghanistan - are once again bustling with activity and schools and hospitals are being reconstructed in areas previously dominated by Taliban insurgents.
But, wary of their potential return, local militia have recruited nearly 3000 men to help keep the Taliban out.
BBC Urdus's Haroon Rashid reports.