The state tightly controls the media. Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says the law punishes journalists for "interference in internal affairs" and "insulting the dignity of citizens".
Foreign media have been gradually expelled since the 2005 Andijan uprising, RSF adds.
Pre-publication press censorship has been abolished but self-censorship is widespread. A law holds media bodies responsible for the objectivity of their output.
The Committee to Protect Journalists says many Uzbeks rely on foreign sources - including Russian TV and the BBC - as a counterpoint to stifled domestic media. The government controls much of the printing and distribution infrastructure.
TV is the most popular medium. Private TV and radio stations operate alongside state broadcasters. Foreign channels are carried via cable TV, which is widely available.
Uzbekistan had around 8.5 million internet users by June 2012 (InternetWorldStats). Strict online censorship includes filtering at a central level. Targets include opposition and news websites.
Uzbekistan is a Reporters Without Borders "Enemy of the Internet". The watchdog describes it as one of the region's most "internet-repressive" countries and says censorship and surveillance were increased in response to the 2011 Arab Spring.
- Khalq Sozi (People's Word) - state-run daily
- Narodnoye Slovo (People's Word) - state-run, Russian-language daily
- Pravda Vostoka (Truth of the East) - state-owned, Russian-language daily
- Ozbekistan Ozovi (Voice of Uzbekistan) - published by ruling party
- Hurriyat (Freedom) - published by government agency
- National Television and Radio Company - state-run, operates four networks including youth TV Yoshlar
- NTT (Non-Governmental TV Network) - national, operated by National Association of Electronic Media
- TV-Markaz - national, music and entertainment
- National Television and Radio Company - state-run, services include flagship network Ozbekiston, youth network Yoshlar
- Oriat FM - private
- Uzbegim Taronasi - private
- Radio Grand - private