Australia profile

Map of Australia

Australia ranks as one of the best countries to live in the world by international comparisons of wealth, education, health and quality of life. The sixth-largest country by land mass, its population is comparatively small with most people living around the eastern coastline.

The country's first inhabitants, the Aboriginal people, are believed to have migrated from Asia tens of thousands of years before the arrival of British settlers in 1788. They now make up less than 3% of Australia's 23 million people. Years of mass immigration after the Second World War heralded sweeping demographic changes, making modern Australia one of the world's most multicultural countries. But migration continues to be a sensitive issue politically.

In shaping its foreign and economic policy, Australia first looked to Europe and the US but in the last 20 years has developed stronger ties with Asia. It has acted as peacekeeper in the region sending missions to Solomon Islands, East Timor and Papua New Guinea.

Although Australia remains part of the Commonwealth, the future role of the monarchy has been a recurring issue in politics. An aging population, pressure on infrastructure and environmental concerns such as climate change are some of the long-term challenges facing the country.

FACTS

  • Full name: Commonwealth of Australia
  • Population: 22.9 million (UN, 2012)
  • Capital: Canberra
  • Largest city: Sydney
  • Area: 7.7 million sq km (2.9 million sq miles)
  • Major language: English
  • Major religion: Christianity
  • Life expectancy: 80 years (men), 84 years (women) (UN)
  • Monetary unit: 1 Australian dollar = 100 cents
  • Main exports: Ores and metals; wool, food and live animals; fuels, transport machinery and equipment
  • GNI per capita: US $65,520 (World Bank, 2013)
  • Internet domain: .au
  • International dialling code: +61

LEADER

Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott

Prime Minister: Tony Abbott

Tony Abbott was already a polarising figure when he became prime minister in 2013. Less than 18 months later, he narrowly saw off a leadership challenge from within his own Liberal Party following a series of public blunders and U-turns on key policies.

A British-born Roman Catholic and former Rhodes Scholar, Mr Abbott trained briefly for the priesthood. He was a journalist for The Australian newspaper before entering politics in 1994.

MEDIA

Newspaper reader in Melbourne, Australia Australia has a lively media scene and is considered to have a relatively free press

Australia's media scene is creatively, technologically and economically advanced. There is a traditoin of public broadcasting but privately-owned TV and radio enjoy the lion's share of viewing and listening.

Ownership of print and broadcast media is highly concentrated, with two companies - The Murdoch-owned News Corp and Fairfax Media accounting for some 85 per cent of newspaper sales.

Around 19.5 million Australians are online.

TIMELINE

Some key dates in Australia's history:

40,000 BC - The first Aborigines arrive from southeast Asia. By 20,000 BC they have spread throughout the mainland and Tasmania.

1770 - Captain James Cook charts the east coast in his ship HM Endeavour and claims it as a British possession, naming it "New South Wales".

1901 - The Commonwealth of Australia comes into being.

1914 - Australia commits hundreds of thousands of troops to the British war effort during World War 1. Their participation in the Gallipoli campaign leads to heavy casualties.

Migrant families wave goodbye as they leave Britain for new lives in Australia, 1948. "White Australia" policies restricted non-white immigration in the first half of the 20th century

1948 - Australia launches a scheme for mass immigration from Europe.

2002 - In Bali, 88 Australians are among 202 people killed when bombs go off in two nightclubs.

2008 - Government makes a formal apology for past wrongs committed against the indigenous Aboriginal population.

2013 - Tony Abbott wins a landslide victory in parliamentary elections.

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