Mali students return to school in Timbuktu
1 February 2013 Last updated at 23:58 GMT
School pupils in Timbuktu have returned to their studies, 10 months after the occupation by Islamist militants began.
The first Friday prayers have also been held since what local residents call the "liberation".
But a full return to normal life may not be so straightforward.
Thomas Fessy reports from Timbuktu.