Has the ANC delivered tangible change for all South Africans?
27 June 2012 Last updated at 13:29 BST
The ANC is facing increasing pressure and criticism over massive social inequalities, poor service delivery and a jobs crisis, even after being handed consistent wins at the polls since 1994.
The party is holding its policy conference near Johannesburg where contentious issues such as the nationalisation of mines and land redistribution will be debated by more than 3500 delegates.
The BBC's Milton Nkosi went to some of the city's poorest communities to hear their assessment of the ruling party's performance.