DR Congo President Joseph Kabila begins second term

President Joseph Kabila takes the oath (20 December 2011) Joseph Kabila has been president since his father's assassination a decade ago

The Democratic Republic of Congo's President, Joseph Kabila, has been sworn in for a second term in Kinshasa.

He reportedly promised to safeguard national unity, as tanks were deployed in the capital to prevent protests.

Mr Kabila's inauguration went ahead after the country's Supreme Court upheld his victory in November's disputed presidential election.

Opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi maintains he won the poll and says he will swear himself in on Friday.

The elections were the first to be organised locally since the end of a devastating civil war in 2003, which left some four million people dead.

The BBC's Thomas Hubert in Kinshasa says Mr Kabila, 40, took the oath of office in the presidential compound, in the presence of a few thousand supporters.

Our reporter says a 21-gun salute echoed around the empty streets of the capital as President Kabila took his oath in front of the Supreme Court and received symbols of power from traditional chiefs such as wooden statues and a leopard's skin.

The government declared a public holiday for the inauguration, while the opposition called for strikes in Kinshasa and other cities.

Belgian boycott

Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe was the only foreign head of state present - our reporter says this is a sign of the discomfort generated by widespread irregularities in Mr Kabila's re-election. Mr Mugabe sent troops to back Mr Kabila's father, Laurent, during the conflict in DR Congo.

Who is Joseph Kabila?

Supporters of incumbent President Joseph Kabila celebrate his re-election as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in December 10, 2011 Goma.
  • 40 years old
  • Born in a rebel camp in eastern DR Congo - where he enjoys most of his support
  • Spent his childhood in Tanzania
  • His father, Laurent Kabila, overthrew long-time ruler Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997
  • He first became president after his father's assassination in 2001
  • Oversaw the signing of a peace accord in 2002 to end a five-year conflict involving several other nations
  • Became DR Congo's first freely elected leader in 2006, winning a run-off poll with 58% of the vote
  • His campaign slogan was: "Five building sites of the republic"
  • Shies away from public speaking
  • Married with one daughter and one son

All ambassadors in the country were summoned to attend the inauguration or risk being made persona non grata.

Taking his oath of office, Mr Kabila pledged to allow himself to be guided only by the general interest, "the respect of human rights to concentrate all my efforts to promote our common well-being and peace".

DR Congo is two-thirds the size of Western Europe and is rich in minerals, but it has hardly any roads or railways. After years of mismanagement and conflict, living standards in the country were recently found to be the lowest of 187 countries surveyed by the UN.

In his speech, Mr Kabila promised:

  • to create more jobs;
  • build more hospitals and health centres;
  • reduce reliance on the mining sector;
  • revise the mining code;
  • boost agricultural production ;
  • improve DR Congo's self-reliance by "rejecting our country's status as the world's supermarket".

Our reporter says the mention of revising the mining code is unlikely to go down well in the West.

The foreign minister of former colonial power Belgium cancelled plans to attend the ceremony. Congolese affairs analyst Theodore Trefon says that Western nations often follow Belgium's diplomatic lead over DR Congo.

Regional powerhouse South Africa said it would send its Foreign Minister, Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, after describing the elections as "generally OK".

Along with the opposition, local and international electoral observers denounced widespread irregularities in November's presidential poll.

Mr Tshisekedi, 79, who enjoys strong support in Kinshasa, has called on civil servants and the security forces to take orders from him, rather than Mr Kabila.

He has also said he is offering a reward for the capture of Mr Kabila. An aide of Mr Kabila said the move was "criminal".

Mr Tshisekedi led the campaign for democracy under former leader Mobutu Sese Seko, but these were the first elections he has contested.

He boycotted the last poll in 2006, organised under the auspices of the United Nations, after claiming they had been rigged in advance.

As well as Kinshasa, Mr Tshisekedi enjoys a lot of support in the diamond-rich, central area of Kasai.

Mr Kabila has been president since 2001 following the assassination of his father.

Last week, Mr Kabila admitted there had been mistakes in the electoral process, but said no poll was 100% perfect and he rejected concerns that the results lacked credibility.

The US-based Carter Center, which sent observers to the election, said the vote was too flawed to be credible.

The US state department called for a review of irregularities and the EU described parts of the election process as "chaotic".

However, the African Union described the elections as a success.

Inside DR Congo
size map
The Democratic Republic of Congo covers 2,344,858 square km of land in the centre of Africa, making it the 12th largest country in the world.
size map
Eastern DR Congo is awash with a variety of different rebel groups – some have come from neighbouring countries, while others have formed as self-defence groups. Many are taking advantage of the lack of a strong state to seize control of the area's mineral riches.
mineral wealth map
DR Congo has abundant mineral wealth. It has more than 70% of the world's coltan, used to make vital components of mobile phones, 30% of the planet's diamond reserves and vast deposits of cobalt, copper and bauxite. This wealth however has attracted looters and fuelled the country's civil war.
transport map
Despite the country's size, transport infrastructure is very poor. Of 153,497km of roads, only 2,794km are paved. There are around 4,000 km of railways but much is narrow-gauge track and in poor condition. Waterways are vital to transport goods but journeys can take months to complete. Overcrowded boats frequently capsize, while DR Congo has more plane crashes than any other country.
population map
With an estimated population of 71 million, DR Congo is the fourth most populous country in Africa. Some 35% of the population live in cities and the capital Kinshasa is by far the largest, with more than 8 million inhabitants. DR Congo has around 200 ethnic identities with the majority of people belonging to the Kongo, Luba and Mongo groups.
demographic map
Given its size and resources DR Congo should be a prosperous country, but years of war, corruption and economic mismanagement have left it desperately poor. In 2011 it lags far behind in many key development indicators, with average life expectancy increasing by only 2 years since 1980, after a period when it actually fell during the mid 1990s.

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