Somalia's disintegration is reflected in its media, which tends to be fragmented and often partisan.
Broadcasters and journalists operate in an atmosphere which is hostile to free expression, and often dangerous. Reporters Without Borders describes Somalia as "Africa's deadliest country for journalists".
Islamist groups have targeted media outlets with which they disagree, and have taken over FM radio stations in areas under their control.
Nevertheless, diverse and increasingly professional media outlets have emerged in recent years - in particular, FM radio stations with no explicit factional links.
The TV and press sectors are weak and radio is the dominant medium. There are around 20 radio stations, but no national, domestic broadcaster.
Many listeners tune to Somali-language media based abroad, in particular the BBC Somali service. The latter is available on shortwave, and via FM relays in Mogadishu (91.1), the Somaliland capital Hargeisa (89.0), and elsewhere. A UN-backed Somali station, Radio Bar-Kulan, is based in Nairobi.
The Somali diaspora - in the West, the Gulf states and elsewhere - sustains a rich internet presence. But domestic web access is hampered by practicalities such as limited access to mains electricity. There were 106,000 internet users by June 2010 (Internetworldstats).
The Somali conflict has spilled over into social media. Pro-Islamists use the medium to promote political and religious aims, while their opponents mount strong rebuttals.
In secessionist Somaliland and Puntland the authorities maintain a tight hold on broadcasting.
- Dayniile - news website, articles in English
- Jowhar - news website, articles in English
- Raxanreeb - news website, articles in English
- Mareeg - news website, articles in English
- Jamhuuriya - Somaliland
- Somaliland Times - Somaliland, English-language weekly
- Somali Telemedia Network (STN) - private, rebroadcasts Qatar-based Al-Jazeera TV and CNN
- HornAfrik TV - private, rebroadcasts Al-Jazeera, CNN
- Somaliland National TV (SLNTV) - owned by Somaliland government
- Somali Broadcasting Corporation (SBC) - private, Puntland
- Universal TV - UK-based, via satellite
- Radio Mogadishu - FM station operated by transitional government, coverage limited to the capital
- Radio HornAfrik - popular private FM station based in Mogadishu, rebroadcasts BBC
- Radio Shabelle - private FM station in Mogadishu, Marka
- Radio Banaadir - private, Mogadishu-based FM station
- Radio Simba - private, Mogadishu
- Radio Hargeisa - owned by Somaliland government, via FM and shortwave
- Radio Galkayo - Puntland
- Voice of Peace - Puntland
- SBC Radio - private, Puntland