State TV and radio reach the largest audiences, and state-owned publications predominate in the print sector.
Radio - the main source of news - had a role in the 1994 genocide. Notorious "hate" station Radio Tele Libre Mille Collines (RTLM) was a vehicle for virulent anti-Tutsi propaganda.
Reporters Without Borders accused officials of "reinforcing news control" in the run-up to 2010 elections. The watchdog says government "hounding" of journalists "forces them into exile or often results in their arrest".
Newspaper readership is limited and press titles often exercise self-censorship.
The BBC can be heard via FM in Kigali (93.9), Karongi (93.3) and Butare (106.1). The Voice of America and Deutsche Welle broadcast on FM in Kigali.
By December 2011, 818,000 Rwandans were online (Internetworldstats.com). Critical bloggers are often based abroad, notes US-based Freedom House.
- The New Times - private, pro-government, English-language
- Rwanda Herald - private, English-language
- Rwanda Newsline - owned by Rwanda Independent Media Group, English-language
- Umuseso - sister paper to Rwanda Newsline, Kinyarwanda-language
- Television Rwandaise - state-owned
- Radio Rwanda - state-owned, broadcasts in English, French, Kinyarwanda and Swahili
- Radio 10 - private
- Radio Flash - private
- Contact FM - private
- City Radio - private
- Radio Izuba - private
- Radio Maria - Catholic