Libya's media environment has undergone a rapid and total transformation.
The control of the media by Colonel Gaddafi's regime came to an end after the fall of Tripoli in August 2011, and there has been a mushrooming of private and pro-National Transitional Council (NTC) outlets.
Journalists are experiencing unprecedented free conditions of working, with no clear red lines for reporting. Libya has yet to pass a media law, and there are no clear legal guidelines on libel and slander, or a code of ethics for journalists.
Libyan Radio and TV (LRT) is the successor to the Gaddafi-era state broadcaster. More than 20 TV stations, and dozens of radio outlets, broadcast from Libyan cities and from Middle East media hubs. Many of them are privately-owned.
BBC World Service Arabic broadcasts on 91.5 FM in Tripoli, Benghazi and Misrata.
The press has similarly seen a radical shift. Former state-affiliated dailies have closed and new titles have appeared, some of them short-lived. Benghazi has emerged as a publishing hub. But there are few daily newspapers and print runs are small.
There were more than 635,000 internet users by June 2012 (Internetworldstats.com). Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were pivotal in carrying raw news material for a world audience during the revolt.
Facebook is a favourite platform for Libyans to read news and to comment on events. Libyans use Twitter as individuals and as activists. Many tweets on #Libya are in English.
- February - state-owned daily
- Al-Bilad - private daily
- New Quryna - Benghazi-based private daily
- The Tripoli Post - English-language
- Libya Herald - English-language
- Libya TV - aka Libya al-Ahrar; pro-NTC, Qatar-based satellite station, launched in April 2011
- Libya Radio and Television (LRT) - state-run
- Libya Al-Wataniyah TV (Libyan National TV) - state-run
- Libya al-Hurrah - pro-NTC
- Al-Asimah TV - private
- Libyan Radio and Television (LRT) - state-run, operates Radio Libya, Al-Shababiyah, Al-Itha'ah al-Wataniya (National Radio)
- Voice of Free Libya - pro-NTC, in Benghazi, Al-Bayda, Misrata
- Libya FM - pro-NTC, Egypt-based