Ghana profileA chronology of key events:
1482 - Portuguese set up trading settlement.
Independence leader was an advocate of Pan-Africanism
1874 - British proclaim coastal area a crown colony.
1925 - First legislative council elections take place.
1957 March - Ghana becomes independent with Kwame Nkrumah as prime minister.
1960 - Ghana proclaimed a republic; Nkrumah elected president.
1964 - Ghana becomes a one-party state.
1966 - Nkrumah overthrown in military coup; Russian and Chinese technicians expelled.
1969 - New constitution facilitates transfer of power to civilian government led by Kofi Busia.
1972 - Busia ousted in military coup led by Colonel Ignatius Acheampong.
Kwame Nkrumah's toppled statue symbolised his leadership of Ghana
1978 - Acheampong forced to resign; General Frederick Akuffo takes over.Rawlings era
1979 - Akuffo deposed in coup led by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings. Acheampong and Akuffo executed.
1979 September - Rawlings hands over power to an elected president, Hilla Limann.
1981 - Limann ousted in military coup led by Rawlings after two years of weak government and economic stagnation.
1983 - Rawlings adopts conservative economic policies, abolishing subsidies and price controls, privatising many state enterprises and devaluing the currency.
1992 - Referendum approves new constitution introducing a multiparty system. Rawlings elected president.
1994 - One thousand people are killed and a further 150,000 are displaced in the Northern Region following ethnic clashes between the Konkomba and the Nanumba over land ownership.
1994 June - Seven ethnic groups involved in violence in Northern Region sign peace agreement.
1995 - Government imposes curfew in Northern Region as renewed ethnic violence results in a further 100 deaths.
1996 - Jerry Rawlings re-elected president.Kufuor elected
2000 - December - John Kufuor beats Vice-President John Atta Mills in the presidential election.
2001 February - Petrol prices rise by 60% following the government's decision to remove fuel subsidies.
2001 April - Ghana accepts debt relief under a scheme designed by the World Bank and the IMF.
2001 May - National day of mourning after football stadium stampede leaves 126 dead. Inquiry blames police for overreacting to crowd trouble.
2001 June - Government scraps public holiday celebrating Rawling's military coup in an effort to wipe out the legacy of his rule.
2001 June - Floods hit Accra, causing 10 deaths and forcing 100,000 to flee their homes.
2002 April - State of emergency is declared in the north after a tribal chief and more than 30 others are killed in clan violence. State of emergency is lifted in August 2004.
2002 May - President Kufuor inaugurates reconciliation commission to look into human rights violations during military rule.
2003 October - Government approves merger of two gold-mining firms, creating new gold-mining giant.
2004 February - Former President Jerry Rawlings testifies at commission investigating human rights offences during the early years of his rule.
2004 October - Group of current and former military personnel detained on suspicion of planning to destabilise government ahead of elections.
2004 December - Presidential poll: Incumbent John Kufuor wins a second term.
2005 April-May - Thousands of Togolese refugees arrive, fleeing political violence in their home country.
2006 April - A boat capsizes on Lake Volta reservoir; more than 100 passengers are feared drowned.
2006 June - Visiting Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao promises to lend Ghana about $66m to fund development projects. He is on an African tour aimed at opening new export markets for China's booming economy and at securing energy and mineral supplies.
2007 March - Ghana celebrates 50 years of independence from Britain.Oil discovered
2007 June - Major off-shore oil discovery announced. President Kufuor says oil will turn Ghana into an "African tiger".
2007 September - The worst floods for more than 30 years cause widespread devastation, destroying much of the annual harvest.
2007 December - President Kufuor says off-shore oil reserves total 3 billion barrels.
2008 December - John Atta Mills elected president.
2009 July - US President Barack Obama visits.
Ghana secures a $600m three-year loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
2009 October - Controversy over sale of national communications network Ghana Telecom, allegedly for less that it was worth.
2010 December - Offshore oil production begins.
2011 July - President John Atta Mills chosen as ruling National Democratic Congress party's candidate for the 2012 presidential election, defeating Nana Konadu Agyemang-Rawlings, wife of former President Jerry Rawlings.
2011 August - UK-based oil exploration company Tullow Oil, says it will spend at least $4bn to develop oil fields off the coast of Ghana.
2012 June - Thousands are displaced by communal violence in the east, sparked by the exhumation of the body of a Muslim cleric.
2012 July - President Mills dies. John Mahama becomes interim head of state.
2012 September-October - Ivory Coast closes its borders with Ghana for two weeks after a deadly attack on an army checkpoint blamed on exiled supporters of ousted President Laurent Gbagbo.
2012 October - Ghana becomes embroiled in a row with Argentina after impounding an Argentine naval training vessel on behalf of creditors.
A Chinese boy is killed and some 100 Chinese are detained in an operation against illegal gold mining.
2012 December - President John Mahama wins re-election.