Ethiopia profile - Media
Ethiopia's media environment is one of the most restrictive in sub-Saharan Africa, says US-based Freedom House.
Reporters Without Borders says terrorism charges have been systematically levelled against journalists, and "physical and verbal threats, arbitrary trials, and convictions are all used to silence the media".
In late 2016 the government announced strict controls on the media amid a state of emergency over anti-government protests.
The rules outlawed watching or listening to TV or radio stations belonging to what the government called "terrorist organisations", such as the Amsterdam-based opposition ESAT TV and US-based OMN.
Radio is an important medium, reaching rural areas where most Ethiopians live.
Although the state controls most broadcasting outlets, including the sole national TV network, there is a handful of private radio stations.
Press circulation is largely confined to the literate urban elite.
There were around 4.3 million internet users by 2016 (Internetlivestats.com). The internet and mobile networks have been deliberately disrupted during periods of social unrest.
Ethiopia has a "politically-motivated internet blocking and filtering regime that is reinforced during sensitive political events", says Freedom House.
Poor infrastructure and a government monopoly in the ICT sector make online services prohibitively expensive for many Ethiopians.
- Addis Zemen - state-owned daily
- Ethiopian Herald - state-owned English-language daily
- The Daily Monitor - private, English-language
- Addis Admass - private, Amharic-language weekly
- The Reporter - private, English-language web pages
- Capital - English-language, business weekly
- Addis Fortune - English-language business weekly
- Ethiopian Television (ETV) - state-owned
- Radio Ethiopia - state-owned, operates National Service and External Service and regional stations
- FM Addis 97.1 - operated by Addis Ababa city administration
- Voice of Tigray Revolution - Tigray Regional State government radio
- Radio Fana - founded in 1994 by ruling party