Egypt is a major regional media player. Its press is one of the most influential and widely-read in the region, and its TV and film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City.
Former President Hosni Mubarak's departure in early 2011 precipitated an editorial u-turn among state media outlets that had served for decades as government mouthpieces.
"There is real freedom of expression," said Reporters Without Borders.
However, censorship, official and self-imposed, is widespread, US-based Freedom House reported in 2013. Another watchdog, the Committee to Protect Journalists, has warned of a "growing trend of targeting independent and critical voices" under President Morsi.
Political polarisation has had an impact. Privately-owned outlets have tended to favour the liberal and secular opposition, while Islamist media have rallied behind the president.
Television is the most popular source for news. There are two state-run national TVs and six regional channels. Around 20 new private networks have emerged in the post-Mubarak era.
Egypt is a big force in satellite TV. Most leading Arab pay TV networks have a presence at Media Production City in Cairo. Egypt was the first Arab nation to have its own satellite, Nilesat.
The number of privately-owned newspaper titles has soared since the 2011 uprising.
Some 29.8 million Egyptians were online by June 2012 (InternetWorldStats.com). Bloggers have uploaded videos showing human rights violations and activists have embraced Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.
Internet access was cut for a time in early 2011 in an effort to curb protests. Social networks were used to organise the demonstrations.
Government departments and ministries operate accounts on Facebook, and President Morsi and other prominent political figures run Facebook and Twitter pages.
- Al-Ahram - state-owned daily, the oldest newspaper in the Arab world
- Al-Ahram Weekly - English-language
- Al-Jumhuriyah - state-owned daily
- Al-Misri al-Yawm - private daily, English-language edition
- Al-Shuruq - private daily
- Al-Wafd - opposition daily
- The Egyptian Gazette - state-owned, English-language daily
- Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU) - state-run, operates domestic and satellite networks, including Nile News, Nile TV International and Nile TV thematic channels
- Dream TV - private satellite network, operates Dream 1 targeting young viewers and Dream 2, an entertainment channel
- Al-Mihwar - private, via satellite
- Al-Nahar - private, via satellite
- Al-Hayat - private, via satellite
- CBC - private, via satellite
- Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU) - state-run, operates national, regional and external services including flagship General Programme Network
- Nile FM - private, Western pop
- Nogoum FM - private, Arabic pop