Egypt is a major regional media player. Its press is one of the most influential and widely-read in the region, and its TV and film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City.
Former President Hosni Mubarak's departure in early 2011 precipitated an editorial u-turn among state media that had served for decades as government mouthpieces.
But despite the freedoms ushered in by the uprising, state and private news outlets have struggled to provide genuinely independent coverage.
Political polarisation runs through the media. Non-state outlets have tended to favour the liberal and secular position, while Islamist media have rallied behind ousted president, Mohammed Morsi.
News media that support the Muslim Brotherhood have been the target of "harsh measures" by the security forces, while supporters of Mr Morsi "are quick to attack media and journalists", says Reporters Without Borders.
Television is the most popular source for news. There are two state-run national TVs and six regional channels. Around 20 new private networks have emerged in the post-Mubarak era.
Egypt is a big force in satellite TV. Most leading Arab pay TV networks have a presence at Media Production City in Cairo. Egypt was the first Arab nation to have its own satellite, Nilesat.
The number of privately-owned newspaper titles has soared since the 2011 uprising.
Some 29.8 million Egyptians were online by June 2012 (InternetWorldStats.com).
There were just under 14 million Facebook users by May 2013, comprising more than 25% of all users in the Middle East. The platform was used to garner support for the 2011 uprising.
Prominent politicians, Islamist groups and the military run Facebook and Twitter accounts.
- Al-Ahram - state-owned daily, the oldest newspaper in the Arab world
- Al-Ahram Weekly - English-language
- Al-Jumhuriyah - state-owned daily
- Al-Misri al-Yawm - private daily
- Al-Shuruq - private daily
- Al-Yawm al-Sabi - private daily
- Egypt Independent - in English, sister paper of Al-Misri al-Yawm
- Daily News Egypt - private, in English
- The Egyptian Gazette - state-owned daily, in English
- Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU) - state-run, operates domestic and satellite networks, including Nile News, Nile TV International and Nile TV thematic channels
- Dream TV - private satellite network, operates Dream 1 targeting young viewers and Dream 2, an entertainment channel
- Al-Mihwar - private, via satellite
- Al-Nahar - private, via satellite
- Al-Hayat - private, via satellite
- CBC - private, via satellite
- Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU) - state-run, operates national, regional and external services including flagship General Programme Network
- Nile FM - private, Western pop
- Nogoum FM - private, Arabic pop