Interim president: Adly Mahmud Mansour
Chief justice Adly Mansour was sworn in as interim president in July 2013 after the army ousted and detained President Mohammed Morsi in an abrupt end to the Islamist's first year in office.
Mr Morsi's government unravelled after the army gave him a 48-hour ultimatum in the wake of massive demonstrations against his turbulent rule.
His opponents accused him of failing the 2011 revolution by concentrating power in the hands of his Muslim Brotherhood.
Mr Morsi's supporters describe his removal as a coup and organised two mass protest sit-ins in the Cairo suburb of Nasser City, which were soon violently cleared by the new authorities.
Armed forces chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi announced Mr Morsi's overthrow on state television, citing his inability to end a deepening political crisis.
Gen Sisi laid out details of a roadmap for a political transition. The Islamist-drafted constitution would be frozen and presidential elections held early, he said, without specifying when. The armed forces, which had deployed troops and armour across Egypt, would "remain far away from politics".
Mr Mansour, 67, will serve until fresh elections are held in early 2014, under the army's plan.
Morsi in power
The chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party, Mohammed Morsi, won the presidential election in 2012 to become Egypt's first freely-elected head of state.
He is a veteran member of the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, which founded the Freedom and Justice Party as its political wing after the 2011 uprising which ousted long-term leader Hosni Mubarak.
He narrowly beat Ahmed Shafiq, a Mubarak-era general and former prime minister, in an election run-off marred by a low turnout and haunted by rumours of vote-fixing and a possible military coup to pre-empt his win.
Coptic Christians, liberals and many women were unconvinced that the president would respect their rights. His record in office was marked by constitutional confusion and jockeying for position.
The interim government says he will stand trial in November 2013 on charges of inciting and committing violence.
Interim prime minister: Hazem el-Beblawi
Hazem el-Beblawi, an economist, was appointed prime minister of the transitional government led by interim President Mansour in July 2013.
He backed the 2011 revolution and was appointed finance minister in the military-backed interim government that followed.
He formed the Egyptian Social Democratic Party after the revolution.
Mr Beblawi, who was 76 years old when he took office, is known for his liberal views on the economy and supports a free market system in Egypt.
He ran Egypt's Export Development Bank for 12 years and worked for regional economic agencies in the Middle East.