Interim president: Adly Mahmud Mansour
Chief justice Adly Mansour was sworn in as interim president in July 2013 after the army ousted and detained President Mohammed Morsi in an abrupt end to the Islamist's first year in office.
Mr Morsi's government unravelled after the army gave him a 48-hour ultimatum in the wake of massive demonstrations against his turbulent rule.
His opponents accused him of failing the 2011 revolution by concentrating power in the hands of his Muslim Brotherhood.
Mr Morsi's supporters describe his removal as a coup and organised two mass protest sit-ins in the Cairo suburb of Nasser City, which were violently cleared by the new authorities.
Armed forces chief Abdel Fattah al-Sisi announced Mr Morsi's overthrow on state television, and laid out details of a roadmap for a political transition that included a new constitution and fresh elections. The armed forces would "remain far away from politics".
Mr Sisi, whose popularity surged following Mr Morsi's removal, in March announced he would stand as a civilian in presidential elections in May.
Passed in a January 2014 referendum, the new constitution bans parties based on religion, requires that the defence minister be a member of the armed forces and ensures the military budget remains beyond scrutiny.
First freely-elected leader
Mohammed Morsi became Egypt's first freely-elected head of state when he won the presidential election in 2012, narrowly beating Ahmed Shafiq, a Mubarak-era general and former prime minister.
Mr Morsi is a veteran member of the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, which founded the Freedom and Justice Party as its political wing after the 2011 uprising which ousted long-term leader Hosni Mubarak.
Since being removed from office, he has been put on trial in three separate cases, and faces trial in a fourth.