Interim president: Adly Mahmud Mansour
Chief justice Adly Mansour was sworn in as interim president in July 2013 after the army ousted and detained President Mohammed Morsi in an abrupt end to the Islamist's first year in office.
Mr Morsi's government unravelled after the army gave him a 48-hour ultimatum in the wake of massive demonstrations against his turbulent rule.
His opponents accused him of failing the 2011 revolution by concentrating power in the hands of his Muslim Brotherhood.
Mr Morsi's supporters describe his removal as a coup and organised two mass protest sit-ins in the Cairo suburb of Nasser City, which were soon violently cleared by the new authorities.
Armed forces chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi announced Mr Morsi's overthrow on state television, citing his inability to end a deepening political crisis.
Gen Sisi laid out details of a roadmap for a political transition. The Islamist-drafted constitution would be frozen and presidential elections held early, he said, without specifying when. The armed forces would "remain far away from politics".
Mr Mansour, 67, will serve until fresh elections are held in early 2014, under the army's plan.
Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, whose popularity surged following Mr Morsi's removal, widely rumoured to be preparing to stand, and in January 2014, Supreme Council of the Armed Forces gave its permission in principle for him to do so.
In the first step towards the elections, a vote was held in January 2014 on a new constitution that bans parties based on religion, requires that the defence minister be a member of the armed forces and ensures the military budget remains beyond scrutiny.
First freely-elected leader
Mohammed Morsi became Egypt's first freely-elected head of state when he won the presidential election in 2012, narrowly beating Ahmed Shafiq, a Mubarak-era general and former prime minister.
Mr Morsi is a veteran member of the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, which founded the Freedom and Justice Party as its political wing after the 2011 uprising which ousted long-term leader Hosni Mubarak.
Since being removed from office, he has been put on trial in three separate cases, and faces trial in a fourth.
Interim prime minister (resigned): Hazem el-Beblawi
Hazem el-Beblawi, an economist, was appointed prime minister of the transitional government led by interim President Mansour in July 2013.
Only seven months later, Mr Beblawi unexpectedly resigned along with the rest of his cabinet, without giving a clear reason.
Housing minister Ibrahim Mahlab - a senior official in President Hosni Mubarak's former ruling National Democratic Party - was asked to form a new government.
A supporter of the 2011 revolution, Hazem el-Beblawi was appointed finance minister in the military-backed interim government that followed, and formed the Egyptian Social Democratic Party after the uprising.
Mr Beblawi, who was 76 years old when he took office, is known for his liberal views on the economy and supports a free market system in Egypt.