Egypt country profile
Long known for its pyramids and ancient civilisation, Egypt is the largest Arab country and has played a central role in Middle Eastern politics in modern times.
In the 1950s President Gamal Abdul Nasser pioneered Arab nationalism and the non-aligned movement, while his successor Anwar Sadat made peace with Israel and turned back to the West.
Egypt's teeming cities - and almost all agricultural activity - are concentrated along the banks of the Nile, and on the river's delta. Deserts occupy most of the country.
The economy depends heavily on agriculture, tourism and cash remittances from Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries.
However, rapid population growth and the limited amount of arable land are straining the country's resources and economy, and political unrest has often paralysed government efforts to address the problems.
Arab Republic of Egypt
Population 83.9 million
Area 1 million sq km (386,874 sq miles)
Main language Arabic
Main religions Islam, Christianity
Life expectancy 72 years (men), 76 years (women)
Currency Egyptian Pound
President: Abdel Fattah al-Sisi
Retired Field Marshal Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was elected president in May 2014, almost a year after he removed his predecessor, President Mohammed Morsi, from office in a popularly-backed coup.
He had served as armed forced chief under Mr Morsi, and was a key figure in the interim government which took over after the ouster.
Some Egyptians celebrated the possibility that Mr Sisi would bring stability to a country in upheaval since the removal of long-term leader Hosni Mubarak during the ''Arab Spring'' in 2011. Others worry that he represents a return to the authoritarian security state that prevailed under Mr Mubarak.
- Mr Sisi is seeking a second four-year-term in elections in March 2018 and is likely to win. He has only one challenger, following the withdrawal of human rights lawyer Khalid Ali and former prime minister Ahmad Shafiq, and the arrest of former chief of staff of the armed forces, General Sami Anan.
Egypt is a major regional media player. Its TV and film industries supply much of the Arab-speaking world with content and its press is influential.
TV is the favourite medium and there are several big hitters in the sector, including the state broadcaster.
Media freedom organisations say successive governments have been intent on controlling the media and have not hesitated to clamp down on journalists.
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Some key dates in Egypt's history:
circa 3000 BC - Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt unite. Successive dynasties witness flourishing trade, prosperity and the development of great cultural traditions.
332 BC - Alexander the Great, of ancient Macedonia, conquers Egypt, founds Alexandria. A Macedonian dynasty rules until 31 BC.
31 BC - Egypt comes under Roman rule; Queen Cleopatra commits suicide after Octavian's army defeats her forces.
33 AD - Christianity comes to Egypt, and by 4th century has largely displaced Egyptian religion.
4th-6th centuries - Roman province of Egypt becomes part of the Byzantine or eastern Roman Empire.
642 - Arab conquest of Egypt.
1517 - Egypt absorbed into the Turkish Ottoman empire.
1805 - Ottoman Albanian commander Muhammad Ali establishes dynasty that rules until 1952, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire.
1869 - Suez Canal is completed, but it and other infrastructure projects nearly bankrupt the country and lead to gradual British takeover.
1882 - Britain takes control of country.
1922 - Fuad I becomes King and Egypt gains independence, although British influence remains significant until mid-1950s.
1948 - Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Syria attack the new state of Israel.
1956 - Britain, France and Israel invade over nationalisation of Suez Canal.
1981 - President Sadat assassinated by Islamist extremists. He is succeeded by his vice-president Hosni Mubarak.
2011 - "Arab Spring" popular uprising topples Mr Mubarak.
- Read full timeline