Africa

DR Congo country profile

Map of DR Congo

The recent history of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) has been one of civil war and corruption.

DR Congo is a vast country with immense economic resources and, until recently, has been at the centre of what some observers call "Africa's world war", with widespread civilian suffering the result.

The war claimed an up to six million lives, either as a direct result of fighting or because of disease and malnutrition.

The war had an economic as well as a political side. Fighting was fuelled by the country's vast mineral wealth, with all sides taking advantage of the anarchy to plunder natural resources. Some militia fight on in the east, where a big United Nations force is trying to keep the peace.

FACTS

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Capital: Kinshasa

  • Population 69.6 million

  • Area 2.34 million sq km (905,354 sq miles)

  • Major languages French, Lingala, Kiswahili, Kikongo, Tshiluba

  • Major religions Christianity, Islam

  • Life expectancy 47 years (men), 51 years (women)

  • Currency Congolese franc

Getty Images

LEADER

President: Joseph Kabila

Image copyright Getty Images

Joseph Kabila became president when his father Laurent was assassinated in 2001. He was elected in 2006, and secured another term in controversial elections in 2011.

His second and final term officially ended in December 2016 but elections failed to be held.

Pro-government and opposition groups agreed to a deal brokered by the influential Roman Catholic Church that sought to avert a full-fledged crisis.

Under the deal, Kabila would remain in office until elections in late 2017, ruling in tandem with a transitional watchdog and a new premier chosen from within the ranks of the opposition.

MEDIA

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Informal mining operations, such as for cassiterite used in mobile phones, form a large part of DR Congo's minerals industry

The Congolese media operate against a backdrop of political power struggles and violent unrest.

Reporters Without Borders says media workers face arrest, threats and violence. Reporters exposing corruption are at particular risk.

The press is able to criticise government bodies, and some publications serve as mouthpieces for opposition parties.

The DR Congo has around 175 newspapers and magazines, 300 radio stations and 50 TV stations.

Radio France Internationale (RFI), which is widely available on FM, is the most popular news station, according to the US-based Committee to Protect Journalists. The authorities have been known to suspend RFI's local relays over the station's coverage.

TIMELINE

Some key dates in DRCongo's history:

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Mobutu Sese Seko ruled between 1965 and 1997, gaining notoriety for monopolising power and amassing a vast personal fortune

1200s - Rise of Kongo Empire, centred in modern northern Angola and including extreme western Congo and territories round lakes Kisale and Upemba in central Katanga (now Shaba).

16th-17th centuries - British, Dutch, Portuguese and French merchants engage in slave trade through Kongo intermediaries.

1870s - Belgian King Leopold II sets up a private venture to colonise Kongo.

1908 - Congo Free State placed under Belgian rule following outrage over treatment of Congolese.

1960 - Independence, followed by civil war and temporary fragmentation of country.

1965 - Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power.

1997 - Rebels oust Mobutu. Laurent Kabila becomes president.

1997-2003 - Civil war, drawing in several neighbouring countries (Africa's first world war).

2003 - 2016 - Conflict persists in the east, where there are still dozens of armed groups.

2006 - First free elections in four decades. Joseph Kabila wins the run-off vote.

2015 - At least 30 killed in protests against proposed changes to electoral law which the opposition says are designed to allow President Kabila to remain in power in violation of the constitution.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption The Virunga National Park, in the east of DR Congo, has been badly affected by the conflict in the region

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