South Sudan's Salva Kiir calls for peace on eve of vote

Salva Kiir (right) holds a hat he received from US Senator John Kerry during their meeting in Juba, 8 January 2011 Kiir was talking alongside US Senator John Kerry who has been in dialogue with both sides ahead of the vote

Southern Sudanese leader Salva Kiir says there is no alternative to peaceful co-existence with the north, on the eve of an independence vote.

Mr Kiir was speaking after meeting US Senator John Kerry, one of several international figures who have arrived for the vote beginning on Sunday.

The south Sudanese are expected endorse setting up the world's newest country.

On Friday, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir warned the south would face instability if it voted to secede.

He told al-Jazeera TV the south did not have the ability to create a stable state or provide for its citizens.

Correspondents said Mr Bashir's comments would infuriate the SPLM - former rebels who have ruled the south since the two-decades-long civil war ended in 2005.

The poll was part of the terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which ended the war.

As the vote neared, six people died in an attack by gunmen on Southern Sudan's military.

'Emancipation'

Speaking in the grounds of the presidential palace in Juba, Mr Kiir said the referendum was "not the end of the journey but rather the beginning of a new one".

"There is no substitute for peaceful coexistence," he added.

Harding on Africa

Start Quote

After so many years of conflict, there is no mistaking the sheer appetite for peace here in Juba -a hard factor to measure, but an all too easy one to overlook”

End Quote

After so many years of conflict, there is no mistaking the sheer appetite for peace here in Juba -a hard factor to measure, but an all too easy one to overlook

He was speaking alongside US Senator John Kerry, who has been in dialogue with both northern and southern leaders attempting to smooth the process ahead of Sunday's vote.

Overnight, forces loyal to rebel leader Gatluak Gai reportedly attacked forces in the Sudan People's Liberation Army in the oil-rich area of Unity state.

Col Philip Aguer, a military spokesman, told the Associated Press that the SPLA troops had retaliated and killed four of the rebels.

UN officials confirmed that they had received reports of an attack in the area, but did not say which side had suffered the fatalities.

EU-style bloc?

In an interview with the Arabic news channel al-Jazeera, Mr Bashir said he understood why many southerners wanted independence, but he expressed concern at how the new nation would cope.

"The south suffers from many problems," he said.

Sudan's Historic Vote

  • Voting: 9-15 January
  • To pass, 60% of those registered need to vote plus majority of ballots
  • Vote a condition of 2005 deal to end two-decade north-south conflict
  • Most northerners are Arabic-speaking Muslims
  • Most southerners Christian or follow traditional religions
  • Oil-rich Abyei area to hold separate vote on whether to join north or south
  • Referendum could divide Africa's largest country
  • Final result due 6 February or 14 February if there are appeals
  • South would become continent's newest nation on 9 July 2011
  • New national anthem chosen, but not name

"It's been at war since 1959. The south does not have the ability to provide for its citizens or create a state or authority."

Mr Bashir said southerners living in the north would not be allowed dual citizenship, and floated the idea of the two nations joining in an EU-style bloc.

He also raised the issue of Abyei, an oil-rich region with disputed borders.

He warned that if southerners seized the region for themselves, it could lead to war.

Analysts say Mr Bashir is under intense pressure from northern politicians, who fear that secession of the south may lead to a further splintering of the country.

North and south Sudan have suffered decades of infighting in conflicts driven by religious and ethnic divides.

Southerners have long complained of mistreatment at the hands of the Khartoum government.

At an event on Friday, former South African President Thabo Mbeki - the African Union's mediator on Sudan - said the vote marks the "true emancipation" of the people of the south.

"The work of freedom is just at its beginning. We are confident that the southern Sudanese people have the strength and spirit to succeed in that endeavour," he told a large crowd in Juba, the south's capital.

Southern Sudanese will have a week to cast their vote on the future of the region, one of the least developed areas in the world.

Turnout will be important because the CPA stipulates a quorum of 60% of the 3.8 million registered voters.

Map showing position of oilfileds in Sudan, source: Drilling info international

Both Sudan and the South are reliant on their oil revenues, which account for 98% of South Sudan's budget. But the two countries cannot agree how to divide the oil wealth of the former united state. Some 75% of the oil lies in the South but all the pipelines run north. It is feared that disputes over oil could lead the two neighbours to return to war.

Satellite image showing geography of Sudan, source: Nasa

Although they were united for many years, the two Sudans were always very different. The great divide is visible even from space, as this Nasa satellite image shows. The northern states are a blanket of desert, broken only by the fertile Nile corridor. South Sudan is covered by green swathes of grassland, swamps and tropical forest.

Map showing Ethnicity of Sudan, source:

Sudan's arid north is mainly home to Arabic-speaking Muslims. But in South Sudan there is no dominant culture. The Dinkas and the Nuers are the largest of more than 200 ethnic groups, each with its own languages and traditional beliefs, alongside Christianity and Islam.

Map showing infant Mortality in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

The health inequalities in Sudan are illustrated by infant mortality rates. In South Sudan, one in 10 children die before their first birthday. Whereas in the more developed northern states, such as Gezira and White Nile, half of those children would be expected to survive.

Map showing percentage of households using improved water and sanitation in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

The gulf in water resources between north and south is stark. In Khartoum, River Nile, and Gezira states, two-thirds of people have access to piped drinking water and pit latrines. In the south, boreholes and unprotected wells are the main drinking sources. More than 80% of southerners have no toilet facilities whatsoever.

Map showing percentage of who complete primary school education in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

Throughout the two Sudans, access to primary school education is strongly linked to household earnings. In the poorest parts of the south, less than 1% of children finish primary school. Whereas in the wealthier north, up to 50% of children complete primary level education.

Map showing percentage of households with poor food consumption in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

Conflict and poverty are the main causes of food insecurity in both countries. In Sudan, many of the residents of war-affected Darfur and the border states of Blue Nile and South Kordofan, depend on food aid. The UN said about 2.8m people in South Sudan would require food aid in 2013. The northern states tend to be wealthier, more urbanised and less reliant on agriculture.

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