Why US looks set to continue Egypt funding - for now

Egyptian protester and military helicopter Most of Egypt's modern military equipment have been financed by a US assistance scheme

A decision by the United States to continue giving military aid to the Egyptian army would be a fork in the road moment in Middle East politics.

But despite President Barack Obama's early appeals for restraint and announcement that this military assistance was "under review", the signs in Washington are that this is precisely what he intends to do.

The acquiescence by Western countries to the Algerian army's coup of 1992, overthrowing an elected Islamist government, defined a generation of militants.

When the Bush administration, almost a decade later, put forward its ideas about spreading democracy in the region following 9/11, the-then secretary of state, Condoleezza Rice, insisted that the power of popular votes was more important than the maintenance in power of American allies in the region.

Key Middle East ally

For 12 years the White House has extolled democracy even when its outcome often seemed to challenge US interests. Now it seems ready to acquiesce in the Egyptian army's ousting of President Mohammed Morsi and it is perhaps all the more remarkable that this shift should be happening under Mr Obama.

Engaging on background terms with Americans who have been instrumental in formulating recent Middle East policy it is apparent that they believe the assistance, valued at $1.3bn in 2010, should go on.

Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan Turkey's Prime Minister Erdogan has lambasted the US and EU over their response to events in Egypt

When I asked one senior military type whether it should stop, the answer was: "No I do not think so, as this appears to be a pretty widely supported move by the [Egyptian] military."

Another former US government official suggested the White House approach of raising concerns while using the aid as leverage to insure a rapid return to an elected government was the right one.

Many in Washington evidently fear that a rapid severance would leave them without influence in that equation, one noting that the US has felt like "a bystander" in Egypt during the past year.

Among Middle East public the quantity and effect of US military aid tends to be over-estimated. Egypt's package has been in place since the 1981 peace agreement with Israel, and essentially it operates like a credit note which the Egyptian army can spend in the US on hardware.

Most of the modern Egyptian weapons' programmes from the F-16 fighter to M1 tank or Apache helicopter have been financed under this scheme.

The $1.3bn given annually in this form compares to $18bn pledged in financial aid by Arab neighbours - notably Qatar and Saudi Arabia - since the Egyptian revolution of 2011 or the country's $20bn annual bill for subsidising fuel and food.

Nevertheless the help given to the Egyptian generals has long created the impression of a Middle East strategic alliance second only in importance to that of the US with Israel.

Long review period

The bloodshed in Cairo on Friday though highlights the political risks for the Obama administration in continuing such a close relationship. There is a feeling among those who I contacted that they cannot give carte blanche for repression in Egypt, one noting, "I don't think we should terminate security assistance funds right away".

This then hints at a possibility that if there is increasing bloodshed, or a recognition after some months that the army's professed desire to hold new presidential and parliamentary elections as soon as possible cannot be relied upon, American policy may change. The US president's "review" could therefore be a long lasting affair.

That approach though does not mollify the strong feelings of this moment. Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey lambasted the European Union and US on Friday, noting that events in Egypt were a "test of sincerity" for their professed support of democracy in the region, "and the West failed the class".

Assailed by popular protest, and in a country notorious for military interventions in politics, it is not hard to see why Mr Erdogan should be particularly sensitive on the topic. It is an odd thing though to see Egypt suspended from the African Union, but with the EU and US declining to call events in Egypt a coup d'état.

Until this week, anti-Morsi demonstrators had been accusing the US of backing the unpopular president. Now he has been deposed, it seems, that his Muslim Brotherhood supporters may also be angry with the US for sitting on its hands and providing more weapons to the Egyptian army.

Thus there are risks for the White House not only of abandoning the stated support for Middle East democracy of the past 12 years, but also of firing deep antagonism among broad swathes of Egyptians.

Mark Urban Article written by Mark Urban Mark Urban Diplomatic and defence editor, BBC Newsnight

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  • rate this

    Comment number 42.

    "Suez Canal". If Democracy was a US concern they would not be propping those bastions of Freedom - Saudis & UAE. Hague's crude threat to Erdogan is about US influence on Turkey Mil. Only Israel gets more US Aid than Turkey. Aim of Military Aid is to cultivate Treason,nothing else.Morsi served his purpose against Syria,now it's time for a new Whim.27 US NGOs were Convicted for Covert Ops in Egypt.

  • rate this

    Comment number 41.

    I'm not the US's biggest fan. The Iraq war was an incredible mistake and waste. The spying by the NSA is unacceptable.

    But as expected the most upvoted comments were critical of the US. I think these rants are missing the point. The US will be funding the Egyptian army, which is being supported by the Egyptian people. This is an important development that we should hope continues.

  • rate this

    Comment number 40.

    Booban @38
    'Americans only hope to influence, not control'
    All might hope, would like, 'to control'. All pressurise & 'to hit'

    America in Egypt 'a main player', partly by 'capture' of military kleptocracy, mainly as principal for global hegemony of wealth-concentrating Mammon, to many denying even education

    From Mammon no saving gratitude. Come judgement by the awakened people, to be swept away

  • rate this

    Comment number 39.

    The myth of US leverage in Egypt -- and the Middle East in general -- is convenient for many that would prefer avoid responsibility for their own mistakes and problems.

    Articles like this one help to perpetuate that myth. And the real danger occurs when the US government starts to believe it as well.

    Erdogan's reaction is predictable. A whiff of sulfur in the Turkish air perhaps?

  • rate this

    Comment number 38.

    You don't have to mix in Americans everywhere. They can only hope to influence, not control. They too have to work with realities created by others. If anyone has "failed" it is the muslims, the arabs, the Egyptians themselves.

  • rate this

    Comment number 37.

    Alexander @35
    In "fair & free", voters ("duly informed" & life-experienced) would know - however great their gratitude & trust in any candidate(s) for dictatorship - that by definition no 'dictator' deserves respect as such. The 'honorific' is removable, if the wellbeing of state - or, ideally, 'even the least' of its citizens - is unjustly 'threatened'

    Might the Spring come in time for the West?

  • rate this

    Comment number 36.

    MB wanted a religious state, with the president and prophets above criticism. The other side support a military solution.

    Problem is that the Egyptians don't want a democracy. They just can't all agree on what kind of dictatorship they want.

  • rate this

    Comment number 35.

    33. Wiener Student
    "It is a common misconception to label Morsi's government as "democratic". It was democratically elected, yet since then aimed to disable the basic principles of democracy as we understand it."

    Interesting, though, if in some country people strongly preferred dictatorship and regularly voted in fair and free referendums to continue this mode of government - is it a democracy?

  • rate this

    Comment number 34.

    The Muslim Brotherhood is a terrorist organisation. They have used the 'elections' to gain power. The second they started ruling, they initiated an orchestrated attack on rights of women, minorities and others opposing them. They attempted to radicalise society, drafted a botched constitution, bribed electors, and turned a blind eye at sectarian violence. They never embraced democracy.

  • rate this

    Comment number 33.

    It is a common misconception to label Morsi's government as "democratic". It was democratically elected, yet since then aimed to disable the basic principles of democracy as we understand it.

    We might as well call Hitler's government democratic, since he too had won an election.

    And let's not forget what happened in Pakistan after the army lost political power: total social meltdown.

  • rate this

    Comment number 32.

    American way of doing things: First use all legal/illegal means to try to stop unwanted people from coming to power. If they still succeed because of huge unstopable support then create an environment that causes economic failure, deprive people of basic needs and forc them to come to streets, overthrow the government and appoint a puppet/lap-dog. Iran is the most evident example.

  • rate this

    Comment number 31.

    Egypt is largest recipient of US military aid after Israel.
    Egyptian military is controlled by the Pentagon.
    In the words of General Anthony Zinni, former Commander of US Central Command (CENTCOM):
    “Egypt is the most important country in my area of responsibility because of the access it gives me to the region.”
    For the role played by the US is in this "coup", SHAME!

  • rate this

    Comment number 30.

    The Egyptian again

    Egyptians in numbers:

    Egyptians: 90 Mil
    Those who can vote: 50 Mil
    Those who voted for Morsy & Shafiq combined: 25 Mil
    Morsy supporters: 13+ Mil (Including those who only voted for him so they wont see Shafiq in power
    Shafiq supporters: 12+ Mil
    Now those who voted for Mosry but didnt want to, and those of Shafiq, and those who didn't want to vote at all, are all against Morsy

  • rate this

    Comment number 29.

    The Armed Forces have cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood; this Coup is ultimately intended to manipulate the protest movement, PREVENT the accession of a “real people’s government”.
    The overthrow of President Mohamed Morsi by the Egyptian Armed forces was NOT CARRIED OUT AGAINST US INTERESTS. It was instigated to ensure “continuity” on behalf of the USA.

  • rate this

    Comment number 28.

    I am Egyptian!
    Think of it this way, people were divided between Morsi (1)(Muslim Bootherhood group) and Shafik (2)(seen as the old regime). Some supported 1 just so they wont see 2 in power. But when 1 came to power, those who voted for him just so they wont see 2 in power, now know what it's like, and they do now want 1 anymore!

  • rate this

    Comment number 27.

    What a coup for the west! What conniving!! The naïve Muslim Brotherhood followed same policies as the dictatorship because they obeyed the same elites (i.e. west). Consequently, political Islam will drop as a goal for millions across M.E. Political Islam has taken major blow.
    Obama is not on the horns of any dilemma: he will support Egyptian, pro-western puppeteers.
    To heck with democracy!

  • rate this

    Comment number 26.

    Stonehall @25
    "vague words"

    Mark's focus is 'main actors', the crucial role of US interests & finance in support / control (as possible) of Egyptian politics & military capacity, internal & external

    Failing engagement as citizen to citizen, appeals for restraint are towards leaders, their needs, greeds & vanities, with implicit contempt for 'the ordinary' & the (hidden) promise of real democracy

  • rate this

    Comment number 25.

    What this tells us is that as far as the US is concerned, national (often selfish) interest takes precedent over big sounding vague words like democracy and international law. That the US will see black in broad daylight and prefer to call it something else is not only shameful. It's pitiful.

  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    Amazing, this morning, still hearing BBC interviews from Egypt either without 'guiding challenge' or with editing-out, respected BBC reporters used as megaphones for blind anger

    Lack of jobs, of fairness, of shared prospects, all omitted from 'analysis' - adding literally to risks of fatality - perhaps to avoid repetition. Or from fear of domestic resonance and media?

    Compare Hacked Off courage

  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    Democratic hope now is in patience, not resort to violence

    For all parties, the need is to think & to come together around a constitution by which ALL of goodwill can enjoy security

    ALL need on-going equal freedom to influence state law, being materially represented by equals

    Role for other codes (ancient Sharia etc) is 'to be bettered', in devising law of 'modern relevance', never-ending task


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