Egypt's post-revolution path to democracy has been fraught with sudden u-turns in policy, continued unrest and unpopular military rule.
After a fractious election campaign, the Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Mursi was announced as the country's first freely elected president on 25 June.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (Scaf) formally handed over power to the new president on 1 July, but doubts remain about how much power Mr Mursi will have after the military dissolved parliament and amended the constitution to grant itself greater powers.
The army had been running the country since President Hosni Mubarak, in power for three decades, resigned on 11 February 2011.
Eighteen days of protests in the capital Cairo, and other cities, led him to step down.
Much of the unrest in Egypt was driven by poverty, rising prices, social exclusion and anger at corruption and personal enrichment among the political elite, as well as a demographic bulge of young people unable to find work.
At least 846 people were killed during the uprising and more than 6,400 people were injured, according to an Egyptian government fact-finding panel.
Since Mr Mubarak's departure, the pace of change has increased many people's anger and dissatisfaction.
Post-Mubarak Egypt has been defined by renewed violence and protests against the military, a protracted effort to elect a civilian leader and parliament and draft a new constitution, the resurgence of the previously banned Muslim Brotherhood and a struggling economy.
The process of transfer to civilian rule began with parliamentary elections, which were held in three phases and resulted in 73% of seats being won by Islamists.
But on 14 June parliament was dissolved when the Constitutional Court ruled that the vote in a third of seats had been unconstitutional.
In the country's first democratic presidential election, voters had the choice between Mr Mursi and ex-Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq, whose candidacy had been disputed because of his status as a member of Mubarak's regime.
Thousands of jubilant supporters celebrated Mr Mursi's victory in Tahrir Square, but many activists had refused to vote for either candidate in the presidential election, choosing to spoil their ballots instead.
Mr Mursi issued a decree reinstating parliament, which then held a brief session, but the decree was itself overruled by the Constitutional Court.
Young people in particular and those at the helm of last year's demonstrations in Tahrir Square have expressed anger at what they see as a lack of radical change.
There is also disagreement over a new draft constitution, anger at increased powers of arrest for the military, and demands for improved legislation protecting the rights of women.
In the meantime, Hosni Mubarak has been convicted and jailed for life for ordering the killing of demonstrators last year.